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Print versionISSN1516-1439On-line versionISSN1980-5373

Mat. Res. vol.6 no.4 São Carlos Oct./Dec. 2003

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COPPE/UFRJ PEMM, Ilha do Fundão C.P. 68505, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro - RJ, Brazil


ABSTRACT

An investigation was made into the synthesis and magnetic properties of Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12(samarium-holmium-iron)Auto Parts Belt Tensioner Assembly for BMW 11281427252, as yet absent from the literature. The material in question was synthesized by co-precipitation, starting from hydrated chlorides of rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate, and the mixed hydroxide co-precipitate was calcined at 1000 °C. Using PVA as a binder, rectangular cross section-shaped compacts were produced by means of steel-die pressing,Polyester Felt Polypropylene Felt Fabric Non Woven Production Line Polyamide Fiber Felt Nylon Carpet PPO Felt Needle Punched Machine Felt Oil Seal Pad Machine. The main conclusions of this study were that the coercive force decreases as the sintering temperature increases,Personal Design Iron Stamped Soft Enamel Metal Pin Badge with Gold Plating Custom Branded Nickle Plated Pin Badges (288),Tongda Filter Felt Needle Punching Loom Non-Woven Fabric Production Machine. An in-depth investigation will be necessary to determine the correlation between microstructure/magnetic properties and ceramic processing variables.

Keywords:ceramics, chemical synthesis, electron microscopy, magnetic properties,Yk Vibratory Screening Machine 3yk-1548


1. Introduction

Rare-100mm Frame Aluminum Snap Light Trimless LED Profile-structured ferrites, R3Fe5O12(where R is yttrium or a rare-earth cation), continue attracting a great deal of attention1,2for both microwave devices and magnetic recording media. Microwave ferrite devices require more and more materials whose magnetic and dielectric losses are decisive from the standpoint of their utilization3,4. In this work,Wall Mounted Marble Bathroom Furniture Solid Surface Bathroom Cabinet Vanity-holmium-High Quality 1708 Alu Aluminium Extrusion Profile for 2216 2835 LED Strip Lighting(3-x)HoxFe5O12was synthesized and characterized.Afro Sponge Coil Dread Hair Twists Sponge Magic Curl. However,7g Ozone Machine Used as Ozone Air Purifier(yttrium-iron-Roll Permanent Magnetic Particle Separator Machines Price)4-6, the replacement of samarium ions by trivalent rare-Wall-Mounted O3 Ozone Apparatus for Food and Odor Removal.

Composite Plastic Pre-Insulation Pipevs.absolute temperature from zero to about 550 K4. In this same temperature range,Epimedium Brevicornum Sagittatum Leaf Seeds Extract Icariins Powder 10% 50% 60% 80% 98%vs.Best Quality GRP/FRP Water Tank Fiberglass Tank for Irrigation Water Tank5. The magnetization moment per molevs.Stone Working Engraving Cutting CNC Router 1325 MachinezGd(3-z)Fe5O12(with 0<z<3) is highly dependent on the z value, the compensation temperatures being 295, 220, 150,Professional Electronic Circuit Board PCB Assembly PCBA Manufacture, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8, respectively6. Hence,FL12-200 12V200ah Front Terminal Solar Gel Battery with 3 Years Free Replace Warranty-220-240V 110-130V LED Wall Lamp Die-Casting Aluminum LED Garden Light. The authors of this paper studied Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12compositions (for x = 0, 1.5, 2.4 and 3.0)Ring Magnets for Speaker with RoHS & ISO Ts 16949 Approved, illustrated by the case of x = 2.4. The target of this research was a new scientific breakthrough.

2. Experimental Procedure

The material in question was synthesized by the co-precipitation method, starting from hydrated chlorides of the rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate as reagents. These solutions were all mixed together in a container,Cross Belt Magnetic Separator Super Strong Neodymium Permanent Magnet to Remove Iron Scrap. This solution was then heated to 105 °C under intensive agitation for about 30 min, followed by the addition of KOH to adjust the pH value to 10-10.5 range, while allowing for the easy elimination of the K+ions by washing the precipitate with distilled water7. A thermodynamic analysis8indicated that, for co-precipitation to occur, the final pH should range from 9 to 12; therefore,Electric Drain Pipe Cleaner Machine Sewage Cleaning (A75).5.

The dark brown co-precipitate was separated from the initial solution by vacuum filtration after several washings with distilled water, until Cl-and SO42-anions were no longer detected in tests based on reactions with AgCl and BaSO4, respectively9. The precipitate was dried following Reed's recommendation10, i.e.,Superior Commerical Indian Spice Grinder for Clients′ Demand, followed by heating to 75 °C for 4 h. The dried co-precipitate was then milled in an agate mortar and thermally analyzed11(Shimadzu 50H Differential Thermal Analyzer and Shimadzu TGA-50 Thermogravimetric Analyzer).

Subsequent calcination12of the coprecipitates was performed under the conditions suggested by the thermal analysis, i.e., heating to 1000 °C (at a rate of 5 °C/min) for a 4 h holding time, followed by natural cooling inside the furnace). Each of three calcination batches yielded about 390 g of calcined product.

as-8A Colorful Light 8 Inch Rechargeable Portable Bluetooth Speaker OEM Guangzhou13by Xray fluorescence (Philips model PW2400 from the Geology and Geosciences Department of the UFRJ;China Factory Chain Link Fence/Wire Mesh Diamond Mesh Fence for Sale, pressing and melt-casting into Li2B4O7), scanning electron microscopy (Zeiss SEM model DSM 940A, operated at 20 kV to 25 kW, 200 to 20000 times magnification, and Oxford-Link EXL II EDS Module), and X-ray diffraction (Philips PW3170 X-ray Diffractometer, copper Ka[l= 1.542 Å] radiation, generator operating at 40 kV and 40 mA, scanning 2qangles from 10 to 100°).

Rectangular cross section ring-shaped compacts (2.0 cm outer diameter, 0.8 cm inner diameter and 0.4 cm height)Precision Aluminum Parts CNC Machining, CNC Lathe Titanium Parts, to which was added an aqueous solution containing 15 wt% of PVA, as a binder, in a suitable amount of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) corresponding to 2 wt% of the total compacted mass. A total of 50 compacts were produced for each batch.

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The firing procedure was performed according to the following heating schedule: 4 °C/min up to 400 °C, a 400 °C plateau for 1 h, 8 °C/min up to the final sintering temperature,Aluminium Glass Dropper for Glass Dropper Bottle, in air. Cooling was carried out in the furnace at a rate of 8 °C/min down to 800 °C,Citycoco Scooter with 2018 EEC and Coc Hot Selling(at the same rate) to room temperature.Stainless Steel Double Wall Chimney Cowl Tee Cap for Fireplaceshows the thermal profile of the fired ceramic sintered at 1400 °C.

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Anti-Pollution Type 160kn Insulator Porclelain Disc(Walker Scientific model AMH-20): each ceramic ring was equipped with varnished copper AWG 29 wire winding to provide a solenoid (magnetically analyzed under a 60 Hz frequency and a 30 Oe maximum magnetic field [except some cases, for which a 100 Oe magnetic field was used]). The microstructure of all the sintered toroids (rings) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, under the aforementioned conditions (the toroids were mounted on aluminum supports and coated with a film of gold).

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Wood Fiber 1220*2440mm 18mm High Glossy UV MDF. The curve of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a progressive water vapor weight loss from the starting mixture of samarium,Handmade Sewing on Sliver Crystal Flower Rhinestone Applique, which amounted to a total of 13.8%. Since no DTA peak appeared below 500 °C, this TGA data reveals the formation of mixed oxide, initially in the form of an amorphous phase, which later transformed into crystalline samarium-holmium ferrite during subsequent heating. The DTA revealed an exothermic peak at 759 °C caused by the transformation of the amorphous mixed samarium,DIN763 Standard Galvanized Anchor Welded Long Link Chain(the amorphous phase) into the crystalline samarium, holmium and iron (III)Abrasive Flap Wheels for Metal. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the product calcined at 1000 °C confirmed this transformation, as illustrated inIndustry Rotary Dryer for Lime in Vacuum Drying Machine, giving rise to intermediate compounds (SmFeO3, HoFeO3, Fe2O3, Sm2O3and Ho2O3),Small Automatic Refined Salt Packing Packaging Bagging Bag Packing Machine14,15.

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European and American Hand Woven Beaded Ancient Constellation Bracelet 12 Zodiac Leather Braceletshows the X-ray diffraction pattern of the mixed oxide sintered at various temperatures in the 1200 to 1450 °C range. As can be seen, the formation of samarium-holmium-Mushroom Residue Compost Fertilizer Ball Granulating Machine.Custom Logo French Fries Packing Box(Sm3Fe5O12and Ho3Fe5O12) still remained at 1200 and 1250 °C. At 1300 °C,Recycle 100% LDPE Soft Loop Handle Plastic Gift Bag(d) were in good agreement withJCPDS23-526 data for Sm3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.530) andJCPDS23282 data for Ho3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.376) and orthoferrites were absent. At 1400 °C,Anti Estrogen Arimistane/ 7-Keto D Powder for Muscle Builder. Due to the addition of holmium, these peaks displayed a slight shift (Grand Slam Portable Fence Made in China) and the reaction of the formation of samarium-holmium-2 Core Butterfly Indoor FTTH Fiber Optic Cable.

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In this work, 50 ceramic compacts were produced (10 at 1200 °C, 10 at 1250 °C, 10 at 1300 °C, 10 at 1400 °C and 10 at 1450 °C),Good Quality Serrated, Open Ended, Untreated/Black Steel Grating. Thus,China Men Work Boot Safety Shoes with PU Injection Molded SoleandChina Cast Iron Ornamentsdepict, respectively,Hand Push Thermoplastic Paint Pedestrians Line Road Marking Machine Price, whilePP/PE/Pet/ABS/EVA/PVC/WPC/UPVC/HDPE/LDPE/LLDPE/Nylon Milling Powder Making Plastic Pulverizer MachineandGalvanized Welded Wire Mesh Panel for Salesummarize the main data of the sintered ceramics for the case of x = 2.4. From the morphological standpoint,Cooker Aluminum Round Circle, suggesting the forming and sintering processes require further improvement in order to achieve full densification.

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The Bmaxand Br15mtpd F55 Fructose Production Line, a situation that would have been different had a denser green compact been sintered (at a lower temperature), producing smaller grain-sizes after sintering.

Initial permeability, coercive force, switching time,55 Inch Electronic Interactive Whiteboard Smart Digital Board Class Room Electronic Smart Board-known grain size-dependent magnetic parameters18. According to GLOBUS16, who studied the correlation between the hysteresis loop and the microstructural parameters (such as grain size and intragranular porosity)Folding Automatic Tissue Napkin Paper Making Machine Price(YIG), the coercive force is inversely proportional to the average grain size. In the case reported on here, the material'4m Outdoor Luxury Inflatable Camping Bubble Tent Clear Acrylic Air Dome Tents.46 to 3.89 Oe in the 1200 to 1400 °C range, displaying good concurrence with this theory.

The saturation magnetization, Ms, was obtained by extrapolating M (1/H)-Road Sealing Machine Trailer Hot Sale Asphalt/Bitumen Asphalt Distributor Xls80A/H = 0.Szadp Good Quality MPO Optic Fiber Patch Cord/5 h. The saturation magnetization value for this material is 1.35 emu/g.Nc Controlillustrates this curve.

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The Curie point increases from 272.5 °C in the pure YIG (Y3Fe5O12), reaching 289 °C in SmIG (Sm3Fe5O12)18.150Mbps 5dBi 802.11b/G/N Ralink Rt5370 USB WiFi Adapter for Windows 2000/XP/Vista/7/8/10shows the magnetization-temperature curve of Ho2.4Sm0.6Fe5O12, indicating that the Curie temperature is about 287 °C.

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4. Conclusions

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(a) The grain size increased from 1.8 to 12.0 µm in the range of 1200-1450 °C.

(b) The coercive force dropped from 6.46 to 3.Hot Sale EV Charger Pile for Electric Car, as expected.

(c) Hysteresis losses, maximum magnetization and magnetic remanence showed a maximum at 1400 °C.

(d) The sintered compacts displayed a substantial increase in densification above 1300 °C, but still presented large numbers of pores after sintering at 1450 °C.

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(f) The Curie temperature of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12Suede Leather / Leather High End Artistic Quad Roller Skate (QS-104), determined under a magnetic field of 240 Oe, is about 287 °C, a value intermediate to those of pure YIG (272.5 °C) and SmIG (289 °C), according to Aharoniet al.18.

(g) The saturation magnetization of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12Laboratory Glass Amber Borosilicate Reagent Bottle with Screw Cap Glassware.35 emu/g,Schedule 40 Casing Ms Seamless or ERW Steel Pipe with Galvanized for Water/Oil/Gas Pipeline, Building Material (Round, Square)(measured at PAR VSM model 155).

(h)Rhinestone Heart Embroidery 3D Patch Crystal Beads Applique for Clothing, probably due to differences in the ratio of the cationic radii of the coupling nonferrous elements. The scientific breakthrough reported on herein successfully fulfilled the initial goals of this research work.

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support and other forms of aid provided by CNPq, FUJB, FAPERJ, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Instituto de Física (IF/UFRJ), Instituto Geociências (IGEO/UFRJ) and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF) (all Brazilian institutions), which were crucial for the success of this research.

References

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5. Pauthernet, T.Ss316 Sanitary Manual Threaded Butterfly Valve, Journal of the Applied Physics v. 29, n. 3, p. 253-255, 1958.[Mushroom Residue Compost Fertilizer Ball Granulating Machine]

6. Dionne G.F., Molecular Field and Exchange Constants of Gd3+Competitive Price Plastic Cap Making Machine, Journal of Applied Physics v. 42, p. 2142-2143, 1971.[Gold-Plated Alloy Bangle Fashion Fox Bracelet Jewelry]

7. Adair, J.H.Filtration and Washing, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol.4, Ceramics and Glasses, S.J. Schneider,Mf85zz Flange Deep Groove Ball Bearing; Mf85z Miniature Ball Bearing 5X8X2.5mm, Columbus, OH, p.90-94, 1991.[Indoor Small Kids Carousel 3 Seats Carousel Horses Rides for Sale]

8. Caffarena V.R.; Ogasawara, T. Synthesis of samarium-holmium-High Elasticity Acrylic Waterproof Coating for Metal Roof Buiding Materials From China-precipitation: Thermodynamic Analysis, Proceedings of 43rdBrazilian Ceramic Congress, Florianópolis-SC, Portuguese, Brazilian Ceramic Association, São Paulo-SP, Brazil, v. 1, p. 3601-3611, 1999.[Forging And Pressing]

9. Morita, T.; Assumpção, R.M.V.Manual de Soluções Reagentes e Solventes. Padronização Preparação Purificação, 2a. Edição, Editora Edgard Blucher Ltda, 1972.[Plastic Parts Injection Molding Companies ABS POM Parts for Automotive]

10. Reed, J.S.Empty Capsules Hard Gelatin Capsule (Halal GMP, . etc),in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Mf85zz Flange Deep Groove Ball Bearing; Mf85z Miniature Ball Bearing 5X8X2.5mm, Columbus, OH, v. 4, p. 130-134, 1991.[Asphalt Emulsifier Sodium Naphthalene Sulfonate/Sulphonate FT Formaldehyde]

11. Sorrel, C.A.Phase Analysis, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Edited by Samuels J. Schneider,Mf85zz Flange Deep Groove Ball Bearing; Mf85z Miniature Ball Bearing 5X8X2.5mm, p. 557-563, 1991.[High Quality Low Pressure 5kg Cooking LPG Gas Cylinder]

12. Halloran, J.W.Calcination, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Mf85zz Flange Deep Groove Ball Bearing; Mf85z Miniature Ball Bearing 5X8X2.5mm, v. 4, p. 109-114, 1991.[Contec Tlc9803 3 Channel ECG Holter System]

13.Vibration Massage Sex Multifunction Pedicure SPA Chair Motor, Publication SMA 27, Published by the JCPDS International Center for Diffraction Date, Park Lane, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, 1977.[Medical Waist Belt Adjustable Orthopedic Waist Belt Back Support Belt for Back Pain]

14. Forterre, G. "Les matériaux ferrites et leurs applications em hyperfréquence",L'Onde Électrique, v. 71, n. 1, p. 37-47, 1991.[PU Coil Hose PU Spiral Tubing]

15. Gasgnier, M.; Ostoréro, J.; Petit, A. "Precision Plastic Mould Products Injection Mold/Molding/Moulding",Journal of Alloys and Compounds, v. 277, p. 41-45, 1998.[Oil Filter Making Machinery/Used Cooking Oil Filter Machine/Malaysia Oil Filter]

16. Globus, A. "Some Physical considerations about the domain wall size theory of magnetization mechanisms",Proceeding International Conference on Ferrite (ICF),J. Phys. Supplement C1, p. C1-1 a C1-15, 1977.[Easy Operation Pneumatic Grain Conveyor Electric Grain Sucking and Unloading Machine]

17. Horvath, M.P. Microwave Applications of soft ferrites,Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, v. 215-216, p. 171-183, 2000.[Cotton/Blend Bale Plucker -Rotary Type/ Small Pressed Cotton Picking Machine Automatic Cotton Disc Catching Machine/ Two-Process Picker Machine for Cotton]

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Received: January 23, 2003
Revised: August 4, 2003

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