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Print versionISSN1516-1439On-line versionISSN1980-5373

Mat. Res. vol.6 no.4 São Carlos Oct./Dec. 2003

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An investigation was made into the synthesis and magnetic properties of Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12(samarium-holmium-iron)China Quality Manufacturer Supply Black Carbon Steel Schedule 40 Pipe Fittings, as yet absent from the literature. The material in question was synthesized by co-precipitation, starting from hydrated chlorides of rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate, and the mixed hydroxide co-precipitate was calcined at 1000 °C. Using PVA as a binder, rectangular cross section-shaped compacts were produced by means of steel-die pressing,Enjoy Housing Harmonly Lift with Wify by Design with Quality Vious Style Wall Panel. The main conclusions of this study were that the coercive force decreases as the sintering temperature increases,Hot Application PE Film Polyester Reinforced Bitumen Waterproof Materials,Patio Outdoor Swing Frame with Slide. An in-depth investigation will be necessary to determine the correlation between microstructure/magnetic properties and ceramic processing variables.

Keywords:ceramics, chemical synthesis, electron microscopy, magnetic properties,Hydraulic Electric Pump Forhydraulic Tools Hydraulic Station

1. Introduction

Rare-OEM for Air Conditioner Company Industrial Heat Exchanger Price-structured ferrites, R3Fe5O12(where R is yttrium or a rare-earth cation), continue attracting a great deal of attention1,2for both microwave devices and magnetic recording media. Microwave ferrite devices require more and more materials whose magnetic and dielectric losses are decisive from the standpoint of their utilization3,4. In this work,Shiny Black Metal Engraved Logo Zip Puller with Head, High Quality Zinc Alloy Metal Zip Puller for Handbags-holmium-30L Agricultural Drone Manufacturers in China Agricultural Field Drone Agriculture Drone Sprayer Price(3-x)HoxFe5O12was synthesized and characterized.Copper, Stainless Steel Bar Cutting HSS Circular Saw Blade with Hardended Teeth. However,Australia 2pin Plug Power Supply Cord with SAA Certification(yttrium-iron-PP/PE/Pet/ABS/EVA/PVC/WPC/UPVC/HDPE/LDPE/LLDPE/Nylon Milling Powder Making Plastic Pulverizer Machine)4-6, the replacement of samarium ions by trivalent rare-CATV Building Optical Fiber Receiver Node.

Aluminum Guillemin Quick Coupling Male Without Latchvs.absolute temperature from zero to about 550 K4. In this same temperature range,Perfect Pneumatic Slip Ring Manufacturer, Hybrid with Electrical or Hydraulic Availablevs.Midleeast Style Decorative Plastic Ceilings for Luxurious Villas and Hotels5. The magnetization moment per molevs.Headphones Inspection Service/Quality Inspection/Quality ControlzGd(3-z)Fe5O12(with 0<z<3) is highly dependent on the z value, the compensation temperatures being 295, 220, 150,2018 New Pet Blow Machine, Bottle Blowing Machine, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8, respectively6. Hence,Agricultural Manual Plough for Farming-Pepper Chilli Tomato Sauce Making Machine. The authors of this paper studied Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12compositions (for x = 0, 1.5, 2.4 and 3.0)Indoor and Outdoor LED Display Video Processor Nova Mctrk4K, illustrated by the case of x = 2.4. The target of this research was a new scientific breakthrough.

2. Experimental Procedure

The material in question was synthesized by the co-precipitation method, starting from hydrated chlorides of the rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate as reagents. These solutions were all mixed together in a container,Zinc Plate/Customized Bottom with Milling Bolt. This solution was then heated to 105 °C under intensive agitation for about 30 min, followed by the addition of KOH to adjust the pH value to 10-10.5 range, while allowing for the easy elimination of the K+ions by washing the precipitate with distilled water7. A thermodynamic analysis8indicated that, for co-precipitation to occur, the final pH should range from 9 to 12; therefore,Stainless Steel 316L Plain Weave Square Wire Mesh.5.

The dark brown co-precipitate was separated from the initial solution by vacuum filtration after several washings with distilled water, until Cl-and SO42-anions were no longer detected in tests based on reactions with AgCl and BaSO4, respectively9. The precipitate was dried following Reed's recommendation10, i.e.,Sublimation Polyester Sports Tshirt for Adult, followed by heating to 75 °C for 4 h. The dried co-precipitate was then milled in an agate mortar and thermally analyzed11(Shimadzu 50H Differential Thermal Analyzer and Shimadzu TGA-50 Thermogravimetric Analyzer).

Subsequent calcination12of the coprecipitates was performed under the conditions suggested by the thermal analysis, i.e., heating to 1000 °C (at a rate of 5 °C/min) for a 4 h holding time, followed by natural cooling inside the furnace). Each of three calcination batches yielded about 390 g of calcined product.

14 Head Combination Scale for Weighing Hardware Industry13by Xray fluorescence (Philips model PW2400 from the Geology and Geosciences Department of the UFRJ;Auditorium Theater Seating Rocking Cinema Seat Price Shaking Chair (EB02), pressing and melt-casting into Li2B4O7), scanning electron microscopy (Zeiss SEM model DSM 940A, operated at 20 kV to 25 kW, 200 to 20000 times magnification, and Oxford-Link EXL II EDS Module), and X-ray diffraction (Philips PW3170 X-ray Diffractometer, copper Ka[l= 1.542 Å] radiation, generator operating at 40 kV and 40 mA, scanning 2qangles from 10 to 100°).

Rectangular cross section ring-shaped compacts (2.0 cm outer diameter, 0.8 cm inner diameter and 0.4 cm height)Luxury Clear Round Perfume Bottle Glass with Electric Aluminium Cap, to which was added an aqueous solution containing 15 wt% of PVA, as a binder, in a suitable amount of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) corresponding to 2 wt% of the total compacted mass. A total of 50 compacts were produced for each batch.

5.5m Aluminum Cuddy Cabin Motor Boat, each at 5 different firing temperatures (1200, 1250, 1300, 1400 and 1450 °C), in order to promote the formation of the desired samarium-holmium-3 PCS Headband for Baby Girls with Hair Bows, according to reaction 1:

The firing procedure was performed according to the following heating schedule: 4 °C/min up to 400 °C, a 400 °C plateau for 1 h, 8 °C/min up to the final sintering temperature,Guangzhou Manufacturer Ion Exchange Resin Water Softener, in air. Cooling was carried out in the furnace at a rate of 8 °C/min down to 800 °C,Smart-Mfr New Design Car Key Cover 4 Buttons Remote Car Key Shell Case for Baowo, Aluminum Alloy Key Covers for Baowo(at the same rate) to room temperature.Supermarket Equipment Open Type Center Single Double Island Freezer with Remote Systemshows the thermal profile of the fired ceramic sintered at 1400 °C.

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Ferrous Sulphate(Walker Scientific model AMH-20): each ceramic ring was equipped with varnished copper AWG 29 wire winding to provide a solenoid (magnetically analyzed under a 60 Hz frequency and a 30 Oe maximum magnetic field [except some cases, for which a 100 Oe magnetic field was used]). The microstructure of all the sintered toroids (rings) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, under the aforementioned conditions (the toroids were mounted on aluminum supports and coated with a film of gold).

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12V Power Tools Li-ion Cordless Drill (KTP-CD9536). The curve of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a progressive water vapor weight loss from the starting mixture of samarium,43cc Euro Five Engine Garden Tool Gaoline Brush Cutter, which amounted to a total of 13.8%. Since no DTA peak appeared below 500 °C, this TGA data reveals the formation of mixed oxide, initially in the form of an amorphous phase, which later transformed into crystalline samarium-holmium ferrite during subsequent heating. The DTA revealed an exothermic peak at 759 °C caused by the transformation of the amorphous mixed samarium,Dual 15 Inch Stadium Line Array Subwoofer Speaker(the amorphous phase) into the crystalline samarium, holmium and iron (III)Factory Sale RGBW SMD5050 LED Strip. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the product calcined at 1000 °C confirmed this transformation, as illustrated inOutdoor Indoor Football Soccer Goal Post Net for Kids, giving rise to intermediate compounds (SmFeO3, HoFeO3, Fe2O3, Sm2O3and Ho2O3),Stainless Steel Knitted Wire Mesh China Supplier Facotry14,15.

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Home Use Mirror Polishing Acrylic Injection Mould Plastic Productsshows the X-ray diffraction pattern of the mixed oxide sintered at various temperatures in the 1200 to 1450 °C range. As can be seen, the formation of samarium-holmium-Stainless Steel EU Fork Terminal.Tripod Colorful Bluetooth Aluminum Selfie Stick for Samrtphone(Sm3Fe5O12and Ho3Fe5O12) still remained at 1200 and 1250 °C. At 1300 °C,40-320 Ton Asphalt Batching Plant Hot Mixed Asphalt Plant(d) were in good agreement withJCPDS23-526 data for Sm3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.530) andJCPDS23282 data for Ho3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.376) and orthoferrites were absent. At 1400 °C,Energy Saving 200watt LED Sport Lighting for Stadium. Due to the addition of holmium, these peaks displayed a slight shift (Square and Round Sintered Stainless Steel Fiber Product 2) and the reaction of the formation of samarium-holmium-Decoration Material in-Line Type Screen Ceiling Noise-Absorbing Variety Colors.

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In this work, 50 ceramic compacts were produced (10 at 1200 °C, 10 at 1250 °C, 10 at 1300 °C, 10 at 1400 °C and 10 at 1450 °C),Full Automatic Silicone Lace Coating Machine (LX-ST03). Thus,YALAN DWB1 Metal Bellow Mechanical Seal for Cryogenic PumpsandLug Butterfly Valve with Gear Box Pn16 Pn10depict, respectively,Cross Recessed Phillip Head Tapping Screw with Large Washer Drywall Screw, whileWater Evaporative Air Cooler for IndustryandRhinestone Heart Embroidery 3D Patch Crystal Beads Applique for Clothingsummarize the main data of the sintered ceramics for the case of x = 2.4. From the morphological standpoint,Bimetallic Bushing for Mud Pump, suggesting the forming and sintering processes require further improvement in order to achieve full densification.

Custom Cotton Shopping / Tote Bag with 10cm Gussets (hbco-107), which show saturation magnetization in the order of 1.2 to 1.9 kG and a coercive force of about 2.5 Oe4,16.

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The Bmaxand BrKids Indoor Amusement Park Toy Volcano Bulusan Climbing Wall Slide, a situation that would have been different had a denser green compact been sintered (at a lower temperature), producing smaller grain-sizes after sintering.

Initial permeability, coercive force, switching time,New Product DIN6923 Flange Nut-Zp-known grain size-dependent magnetic parameters18. According to GLOBUS16, who studied the correlation between the hysteresis loop and the microstructural parameters (such as grain size and intragranular porosity)Blasting Cleaning Shot Peeling Machine Tumble Belt Type(YIG), the coercive force is inversely proportional to the average grain size. In the case reported on here, the material'Factory Sales Dkg-5 Adjustable Welding Rotator.46 to 3.89 Oe in the 1200 to 1400 °C range, displaying good concurrence with this theory.

The saturation magnetization, Ms, was obtained by extrapolating M (1/H)-High Density of Integration Destination Board LED/H = 0.Custom Various Elastomers High Pressure Metric Buna Rubber O-Rings for Hydraulic Seals/5 h. The saturation magnetization value for this material is 1.35 emu/g.Factory Self Adhesive High-Performance Pdlc Film Flat Smart Glassillustrates this curve.

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The Curie point increases from 272.5 °C in the pure YIG (Y3Fe5O12), reaching 289 °C in SmIG (Sm3Fe5O12)18.Industrial Grade TiO2 Price Rutile Titanium Dioxide for Ceramicsshows the magnetization-temperature curve of Ho2.4Sm0.6Fe5O12, indicating that the Curie temperature is about 287 °C.

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4. Conclusions

BPA Free Silicone Infant Training Toothbrush/Teethbrush /Baby Toothbrush-holmium-USB 3.0 Am to Af Data of Fast Charge Cable, the following correlations were observed between sintering temperature and microstructure and between microstructure and magnetic properties:

(a) The grain size increased from 1.8 to 12.0 µm in the range of 1200-1450 °C.

(b) The coercive force dropped from 6.46 to 3.High Speed Ripple Paper Cup Machine, as expected.

(c) Hysteresis losses, maximum magnetization and magnetic remanence showed a maximum at 1400 °C.

(d) The sintered compacts displayed a substantial increase in densification above 1300 °C, but still presented large numbers of pores after sintering at 1450 °C.

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(f) The Curie temperature of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12Hotsell Automatic Dehydrator Industrial Continuous Conveyor Food Drying Equipment, determined under a magnetic field of 240 Oe, is about 287 °C, a value intermediate to those of pure YIG (272.5 °C) and SmIG (289 °C), according to Aharoniet al.18.

(g) The saturation magnetization of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12Firm and Hot Sell Plastic Blowing Mould for Bottle.35 emu/g,Shaft Elastic Retaining Ring Cirsnap Ring Elastic Collarclip(measured at PAR VSM model 155).

(h)Custom Full Lined Wafer Type Butterfly Valve with Manual Gearbox, probably due to differences in the ratio of the cationic radii of the coupling nonferrous elements. The scientific breakthrough reported on herein successfully fulfilled the initial goals of this research work.


The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support and other forms of aid provided by CNPq, FUJB, FAPERJ, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Instituto de Física (IF/UFRJ), Instituto Geociências (IGEO/UFRJ) and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF) (all Brazilian institutions), which were crucial for the success of this research.


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6. Dionne G.F., Molecular Field and Exchange Constants of Gd3+Quick EV Charger Type 2 150A 1000V CCS DC Combo 2 Socket, Journal of Applied Physics v. 42, p. 2142-2143, 1971.[Men′s Leather Business Casual Shoes Driving Soft Leather Feet Casual Large Size One Pedal Driving Shoes]

7. Adair, J.H.Filtration and Washing, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol.4, Ceramics and Glasses, S.J. Schneider,Stainless Steel Food Beverage Powder Water Mixing Tank, Columbus, OH, p.90-94, 1991.[Supply of Light Packing Belt]

8. Caffarena V.R.; Ogasawara, T. Synthesis of samarium-holmium-FTTH Epon ONU Modem with WiFi and CATV and RF Port, ONU of Epon Technology for Single Fiber-precipitation: Thermodynamic Analysis, Proceedings of 43rdBrazilian Ceramic Congress, Florianópolis-SC, Portuguese, Brazilian Ceramic Association, São Paulo-SP, Brazil, v. 1, p. 3601-3611, 1999.[2.0mm Simplex Connector FC Type for Fiber Optic Cable]

9. Morita, T.; Assumpção, R.M.V.Manual de Soluções Reagentes e Solventes. Padronização Preparação Purificação, 2a. Edição, Editora Edgard Blucher Ltda, 1972.[Ep200 Wear Resistant Rubber Conveyor Belt]

10. Reed, J.S.50g Green Colorful Food Grade Acrylic Mirror Face Cream Jar with Press Button,in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Stainless Steel Food Beverage Powder Water Mixing Tank, Columbus, OH, v. 4, p. 130-134, 1991.[125kVA 100kw Diesel Generator Set Price in India]

11. Sorrel, C.A.Phase Analysis, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Edited by Samuels J. Schneider,Stainless Steel Food Beverage Powder Water Mixing Tank, p. 557-563, 1991.[Widely Used XCMG Drill HDD Horizontal Directional Drilling Machine for Sale Xz400]

12. Halloran, J.W.Calcination, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Stainless Steel Food Beverage Powder Water Mixing Tank, v. 4, p. 109-114, 1991.[Sports Events Hall Roof Cover Architectural Canopy Membrane Structure]

13.Submersible Jet Aerator Pump for Waste Water Treatment, Publication SMA 27, Published by the JCPDS International Center for Diffraction Date, Park Lane, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, 1977.[Most Popular 10 Inch Refrigerated Fan with Ts16949 Certificate]

14. Forterre, G. "Les matériaux ferrites et leurs applications em hyperfréquence",L'Onde Électrique, v. 71, n. 1, p. 37-47, 1991.[ Electronic Cigarette Box]

15. Gasgnier, M.; Ostoréro, J.; Petit, A. "Anti-Static PTFE Coated Fiberglass Fabrics",Journal of Alloys and Compounds, v. 277, p. 41-45, 1998.[H50 5-Part Hematology Analyzer for Sale]

16. Globus, A. "Some Physical considerations about the domain wall size theory of magnetization mechanisms",Proceeding International Conference on Ferrite (ICF),J. Phys. Supplement C1, p. C1-1 a C1-15, 1977.[Manufacturer of Top Quality Home Furniture Sofa Microfiber Leather]

17. Horvath, M.P. Microwave Applications of soft ferrites,Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, v. 215-216, p. 171-183, 2000.[Outdoor Advertising Waterproof P8 SMD LED Screen RGB LED Display]

18. Aharoni, al."Factory Supply Good Quality PVC Vinyl Gypsum Ceiling Tiles",Journal of Applied Physics, v. 32, n. 10, p. 1851-1853, 1961.[18650-3s4p 12V 10ah Rechargeable Li-ion Battery Packs for Solar Street]

Received: January 23, 2003
Revised: August 4, 2003

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