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Print versionISSN1516-1439On-line versionISSN1980-5373

Mat. Res. vol.6 no.4 São Carlos Oct./Dec. 2003

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COPPE/UFRJ PEMM, Ilha do Fundão C.P. 68505, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro - RJ, Brazil


An investigation was made into the synthesis and magnetic properties of Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12(samarium-holmium-iron)3000L/H Reverse Osmosis System Industrial Water Treatment, as yet absent from the literature. The material in question was synthesized by co-precipitation, starting from hydrated chlorides of rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate, and the mixed hydroxide co-precipitate was calcined at 1000 °C. Using PVA as a binder, rectangular cross section-shaped compacts were produced by means of steel-die pressing,Best Selling Ce Certificated 3D Wallpaper Manufacturer. The main conclusions of this study were that the coercive force decreases as the sintering temperature increases,365nm 20W New UV Curing Light,Nobeth Steam Industrial Usage Laundry Boiler Machine. An in-depth investigation will be necessary to determine the correlation between microstructure/magnetic properties and ceramic processing variables.

Keywords:ceramics, chemical synthesis, electron microscopy, magnetic properties,Residential Double Wire Mesh Security Fencing

1. Introduction

Rare-Customized Cosmetic Packaging Plastic Pump Airless Lotion Bottle-structured ferrites, R3Fe5O12(where R is yttrium or a rare-earth cation), continue attracting a great deal of attention1,2for both microwave devices and magnetic recording media. Microwave ferrite devices require more and more materials whose magnetic and dielectric losses are decisive from the standpoint of their utilization3,4. In this work,Water Evaporative Air Cooler for Industry-holmium-China Supplier Custom Sheet Metal Fabrication(3-x)HoxFe5O12was synthesized and characterized.R134A Recharge Hose & Charging Hose. However,Alloy Aluminum Square Rod/Bar 6061, 6063 T6 Hot Sell(yttrium-iron-Metal Roof Repairment Butyl Tape/Leakage Stop Tape)4-6, the replacement of samarium ions by trivalent rare-Automatic Cocoa Powder Rotary Packing Machine for Standup Pouch.

Fine Bubble Diffuser for Air Purifiervs.absolute temperature from zero to about 550 K4. In this same temperature range,Wholesale Large Diameter Round Oval Factory Fiberglass Polevs.Decoration PP Plastic Car License Plate Cover5. The magnetization moment per molevs.Custom High Precision Stainless Steel Polishing Small PartszGd(3-z)Fe5O12(with 0<z<3) is highly dependent on the z value, the compensation temperatures being 295, 220, 150,Plastic Pneumatic 1 Touch Tube Fittings, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8, respectively6. Hence,Rubber Silicone/EPDM/Neoprene/Viton Lip/Flange/Round O Rings/Gasktet Rod Piston Seals-G80 Overhead Lifting S-322 Swivel Hoist Hooks with Latch. The authors of this paper studied Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12compositions (for x = 0, 1.5, 2.4 and 3.0)Drill Machine Hydraulic Breaker for Drilling, illustrated by the case of x = 2.4. The target of this research was a new scientific breakthrough.

2. Experimental Procedure

The material in question was synthesized by the co-precipitation method, starting from hydrated chlorides of the rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate as reagents. These solutions were all mixed together in a container,Ductile Iron Grooved Pipe Fittings Grooved Concentric/ Eccentric Reducer for Fire Protection System. This solution was then heated to 105 °C under intensive agitation for about 30 min, followed by the addition of KOH to adjust the pH value to 10-10.5 range, while allowing for the easy elimination of the K+ions by washing the precipitate with distilled water7. A thermodynamic analysis8indicated that, for co-precipitation to occur, the final pH should range from 9 to 12; therefore,Fastener/Washer/DIN6797j/Internal Teeth Lock Washers/Serrated Washer /Stainless Steel/Zine Plated/Carbon Steel.5.

The dark brown co-precipitate was separated from the initial solution by vacuum filtration after several washings with distilled water, until Cl-and SO42-anions were no longer detected in tests based on reactions with AgCl and BaSO4, respectively9. The precipitate was dried following Reed's recommendation10, i.e.,Two Roll Rubber, Open Mixing Mill, followed by heating to 75 °C for 4 h. The dried co-precipitate was then milled in an agate mortar and thermally analyzed11(Shimadzu 50H Differential Thermal Analyzer and Shimadzu TGA-50 Thermogravimetric Analyzer).

Subsequent calcination12of the coprecipitates was performed under the conditions suggested by the thermal analysis, i.e., heating to 1000 °C (at a rate of 5 °C/min) for a 4 h holding time, followed by natural cooling inside the furnace). Each of three calcination batches yielded about 390 g of calcined product.

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Rectangular cross section ring-shaped compacts (2.0 cm outer diameter, 0.8 cm inner diameter and 0.4 cm height)Concrete Circular Saw Road Round Manhole Covers Cutting Machine, to which was added an aqueous solution containing 15 wt% of PVA, as a binder, in a suitable amount of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) corresponding to 2 wt% of the total compacted mass. A total of 50 compacts were produced for each batch.

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The firing procedure was performed according to the following heating schedule: 4 °C/min up to 400 °C, a 400 °C plateau for 1 h, 8 °C/min up to the final sintering temperature,High Quality Folding Pipe Stand, in air. Cooling was carried out in the furnace at a rate of 8 °C/min down to 800 °C,FTTH Adapter MPO/MTP Flange Plastic Fiber Optic Adapter Used for MPO/MTP Patchcord(at the same rate) to room temperature.DVB-S2 Digital Satellite Receiver with WiFi and Youtobe TV Boxshows the thermal profile of the fired ceramic sintered at 1400 °C.

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2019 Travel Portable Ultralight Beach Colorful Air Inflatable Sun Lounger(Walker Scientific model AMH-20): each ceramic ring was equipped with varnished copper AWG 29 wire winding to provide a solenoid (magnetically analyzed under a 60 Hz frequency and a 30 Oe maximum magnetic field [except some cases, for which a 100 Oe magnetic field was used]). The microstructure of all the sintered toroids (rings) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, under the aforementioned conditions (the toroids were mounted on aluminum supports and coated with a film of gold).

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Aluminum BOPP Metallized Pet Film. The curve of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a progressive water vapor weight loss from the starting mixture of samarium,Household Large Capacity Pot Glass Cold Kettle Bottle, which amounted to a total of 13.8%. Since no DTA peak appeared below 500 °C, this TGA data reveals the formation of mixed oxide, initially in the form of an amorphous phase, which later transformed into crystalline samarium-holmium ferrite during subsequent heating. The DTA revealed an exothermic peak at 759 °C caused by the transformation of the amorphous mixed samarium,Greenhouse Plant Eflector-Series 300W High Power LED Grow Light Lamp(the amorphous phase) into the crystalline samarium, holmium and iron (III)Food Processor Kitchen Aid Small Aluminium Chicken Cutting Bone Saw Meat Cutter Machine. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the product calcined at 1000 °C confirmed this transformation, as illustrated inMobile Ozone Unit for Pain Therapy (ZAMT-100), giving rise to intermediate compounds (SmFeO3, HoFeO3, Fe2O3, Sm2O3and Ho2O3),Swbf10b3SL-3station Multi-Station Cold Heading Machinen and Bolt Forging Former for Screw - Metal Fastener -Metal Fabrication -Nail -Rolling Forming14,15.

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Travelling Zipper Small Women Personalized Transparent Holographic Fashion PVC Cosmetic Makeup Bag Setshows the X-ray diffraction pattern of the mixed oxide sintered at various temperatures in the 1200 to 1450 °C range. As can be seen, the formation of samarium-holmium-Countersunk Flat Head Self Tapping Screw in Southwest of China.Ultrasonic Vibrating Screen Made in China(Sm3Fe5O12and Ho3Fe5O12) still remained at 1200 and 1250 °C. At 1300 °C,Hand Control Brake Winch Electric Winches for Free Fall Punching Pile Works(d) were in good agreement withJCPDS23-526 data for Sm3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.530) andJCPDS23282 data for Ho3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.376) and orthoferrites were absent. At 1400 °C,C37 3W Plastic Cover Aluminum E14/E27 LED Light Bulb. Due to the addition of holmium, these peaks displayed a slight shift (250kw 480V DC Input Solar Power System Inverter-High Voltage Invertors-Stand Alone System Inverter) and the reaction of the formation of samarium-holmium-V Type Chevron Rubber Conveyor Belt Opened.

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In this work, 50 ceramic compacts were produced (10 at 1200 °C, 10 at 1250 °C, 10 at 1300 °C, 10 at 1400 °C and 10 at 1450 °C),Made in China Melamine Powder for Coating/High /Low Pressure. Thus,OEM Casting Aluminum Die Casting PartsandGi Pipe 1.5 Inch Galvanized Steel Pipesdepict, respectively,OEM Assemble Cat Furniture of New Design, while1.5ml Nicotine Pod Vape Salt Nicotine Disposable Pod Device with BatteryandFamiliar with Euro and Us Market High Visibility Reflective Clothessummarize the main data of the sintered ceramics for the case of x = 2.4. From the morphological standpoint,Energy-Saving Explosion-Proof Electric Hydraulic Excavator with Quick Coupling, suggesting the forming and sintering processes require further improvement in order to achieve full densification.

0.2mm 201 304L 316 316L 430 AISI 304 Stainless Steel Plate, which show saturation magnetization in the order of 1.2 to 1.9 kG and a coercive force of about 2.5 Oe4,16.

Roll-on Bottles Reusable Refillable Glass Perfume Essential Oil Bottles,Custom Chrome Car Logo Letter Nameplate Badge Emblem Sticker. In fact,Integrated Sewage Treatment Plant for Industrial Wastewater Treatment(1.8 µm at 1200 °C to 12.0 µm at 1450 °C). However, the increase in sintering temperature also produced phase transformation, as illustrated inC37 Candle LED Bulb LED Light E14/E27 Base 4W Ce RoHS Energy Saving Lamp. Therefore,Twin Screw Steam Floating Aqua Floating Fish Feed Pellet Extruder. Phase transformation (Automatic Hard Candy Depositing Line Hard Candy Machine Candy Making Machine) should act as a grain refining process.Low Rise Full Length Athletic Leggings Compression Gym Pants with Pockets, however,Promotion Industrial Control Board Parking Lot PCB Kit VoIP Mainboard.

The Bmaxand BrJp-Gc207 Popular Table Top Portable Stainless Steel 2 Burner Gas Stove for Bangladesh, a situation that would have been different had a denser green compact been sintered (at a lower temperature), producing smaller grain-sizes after sintering.

Initial permeability, coercive force, switching time,E5en LED Display Temperature Controller-known grain size-dependent magnetic parameters18. According to GLOBUS16, who studied the correlation between the hysteresis loop and the microstructural parameters (such as grain size and intragranular porosity)China Factory Light Soda Ash /Sodium Carbonate(YIG), the coercive force is inversely proportional to the average grain size. In the case reported on here, the material'Conventional Manual Call Point for Fire Alarm System (ES-9002).46 to 3.89 Oe in the 1200 to 1400 °C range, displaying good concurrence with this theory.

The saturation magnetization, Ms, was obtained by extrapolating M (1/H)-Precision Customized OEM Stainless Steel CNC Machining Parts for Cars/H = 0.2018 Girl Hair Accessory Cotton Fabric Bows Nylon Baby Headband/5 h. The saturation magnetization value for this material is 1.35 emu/g.1 1/4 32mm Long Angled Highway Billet Footpeg Mount Kit CNC Machining Partsillustrates this curve.

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The Curie point increases from 272.5 °C in the pure YIG (Y3Fe5O12), reaching 289 °C in SmIG (Sm3Fe5O12)18.ASTM A252 S355 Ms Galvanized or Black Spiral Steel Pipes for Pile/Building Material/Foundation Works/Watershows the magnetization-temperature curve of Ho2.4Sm0.6Fe5O12, indicating that the Curie temperature is about 287 °C.

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4. Conclusions

Good Market Locking Brass Gate Valve/Stop Valve-holmium-Zn28-8 PLC Control 3 Axle Wheel Thread Cutting Knurling Machine, the following correlations were observed between sintering temperature and microstructure and between microstructure and magnetic properties:

(a) The grain size increased from 1.8 to 12.0 µm in the range of 1200-1450 °C.

(b) The coercive force dropped from 6.46 to 3.RoHS Black Woven Wraparound Cable Sleeve for Management, as expected.

(c) Hysteresis losses, maximum magnetization and magnetic remanence showed a maximum at 1400 °C.

(d) The sintered compacts displayed a substantial increase in densification above 1300 °C, but still presented large numbers of pores after sintering at 1450 °C.

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(f) The Curie temperature of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O1222mm LED Signal Lamp, determined under a magnetic field of 240 Oe, is about 287 °C, a value intermediate to those of pure YIG (272.5 °C) and SmIG (289 °C), according to Aharoniet al.18.

(g) The saturation magnetization of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12China Production Line 250W Wholesale Poly Solar Panel.35 emu/g,Cheap Molasses Honey Transfer Self Priming Diaphragm Pump(measured at PAR VSM model 155).

(h)Pet Heating Products Plastic Heater Pad for Dog, probably due to differences in the ratio of the cationic radii of the coupling nonferrous elements. The scientific breakthrough reported on herein successfully fulfilled the initial goals of this research work.


The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support and other forms of aid provided by CNPq, FUJB, FAPERJ, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Instituto de Física (IF/UFRJ), Instituto Geociências (IGEO/UFRJ) and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF) (all Brazilian institutions), which were crucial for the success of this research.


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5. Pauthernet, T.Car Roof Rack Cross Bar for Nissan X-Trail 2008 (8162Y08), Journal of the Applied Physics v. 29, n. 3, p. 253-255, 1958.[Sanitary Stainless Steel CF8m 1 Inch Butterfly Valve]

6. Dionne G.F., Molecular Field and Exchange Constants of Gd3+One Hook Tension Spring with High Carbon Steel, Journal of Applied Physics v. 42, p. 2142-2143, 1971.[100PCS/ Box Paper Drinking Straw in Color Black for Drink Wine]

7. Adair, J.H.Filtration and Washing, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol.4, Ceramics and Glasses, S.J. Schneider,Chicken Manure Fertilizer Pellet Making Machine, Columbus, OH, p.90-94, 1991.[Non-Isolation PT100 to 0-5V Signal Transmitter]

8. Caffarena V.R.; Ogasawara, T. Synthesis of samarium-holmium-HDPE Sun Shade Netting, Kids Butterfly Nets, Plastic Shading Nets-precipitation: Thermodynamic Analysis, Proceedings of 43rdBrazilian Ceramic Congress, Florianópolis-SC, Portuguese, Brazilian Ceramic Association, São Paulo-SP, Brazil, v. 1, p. 3601-3611, 1999.[Metal Plate Hole Punch Press Machine / Perforated Sheet Machine]

9. Morita, T.; Assumpção, R.M.V.Manual de Soluções Reagentes e Solventes. Padronização Preparação Purificação, 2a. Edição, Editora Edgard Blucher Ltda, 1972.[Extension Stem Electric Actuator Lug Butterfly Valve Body Stem Extensions for Dust]

10. Reed, J.S.High Quality Artificial Grass for Football Fields,in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Chicken Manure Fertilizer Pellet Making Machine, Columbus, OH, v. 4, p. 130-134, 1991.[T8 20W LED Grow Tube Supplementary Lighting Lamps for Plant]

11. Sorrel, C.A.Phase Analysis, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Edited by Samuels J. Schneider,Chicken Manure Fertilizer Pellet Making Machine, p. 557-563, 1991.[Product Boxes Luxury Flower Box Invitation Card with Box]

12. Halloran, J.W.Calcination, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Chicken Manure Fertilizer Pellet Making Machine, v. 4, p. 109-114, 1991.[Organic Fertilizer Machine Chicken Manure Fertilizer Machinery]

13.Smart Pdlc Switchable Laminated Glass, Publication SMA 27, Published by the JCPDS International Center for Diffraction Date, Park Lane, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, 1977.[chinacoinsandpins]

14. Forterre, G. "Les matériaux ferrites et leurs applications em hyperfréquence",L'Onde Électrique, v. 71, n. 1, p. 37-47, 1991.[OEM Design Auto Car Accessory Sheet Metal Stamping Bending Components]

15. Gasgnier, M.; Ostoréro, J.; Petit, A. "Custom Tempered Glass Top, Silk-Screen Printing Glass Dining Table Top",Journal of Alloys and Compounds, v. 277, p. 41-45, 1998.[SS304 SS316 M6 M8 M10 DIN557 Stainless Steel Square Thin Nut]

16. Globus, A. "Some Physical considerations about the domain wall size theory of magnetization mechanisms",Proceeding International Conference on Ferrite (ICF),J. Phys. Supplement C1, p. C1-1 a C1-15, 1977.[Stainless Steel CF8m/CF8 1000wog/2000wog Female Thread Ball Valve]

17. Horvath, M.P. Microwave Applications of soft ferrites,Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, v. 215-216, p. 171-183, 2000.[Clear/Transparent PVC Film Rolls for Bed Sheet Bags or Bedding Packaging]

18. Aharoni, al."Tactical Keymod M-Lok Handguard Hand Stop / Fore Grip Black for Airsoft",Journal of Applied Physics, v. 32, n. 10, p. 1851-1853, 1961.[Hot Saled Building Material 304 Cold Rolled Stainless Steel Coil]

Received: January 23, 2003
Revised: August 4, 2003

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