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Print versionISSN1516-1439On-line versionISSN1980-5373

Mat. Res. vol.6 no.4 São Carlos Oct./Dec. 2003

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COPPE/UFRJ PEMM, Ilha do Fundão C.P. 68505, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro - RJ, Brazil


An investigation was made into the synthesis and magnetic properties of Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12(samarium-holmium-iron)Non-Woven Bonded 100% Polypropylene Solution Dyed Fabric for Outdoor Covers, as yet absent from the literature. The material in question was synthesized by co-precipitation, starting from hydrated chlorides of rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate, and the mixed hydroxide co-precipitate was calcined at 1000 °C. Using PVA as a binder, rectangular cross section-shaped compacts were produced by means of steel-die pressing,Metallic Roofing Corrugated Color Coated Aluminum Sheet (AA3003, AA3004, AA3005, AA3105). The main conclusions of this study were that the coercive force decreases as the sintering temperature increases,New Fashion New Design Custom Printing Paper Packing Box with Inner Bracket,High Precision Cutting Saw for Metal and Stainless Steel. An in-depth investigation will be necessary to determine the correlation between microstructure/magnetic properties and ceramic processing variables.

Keywords:ceramics, chemical synthesis, electron microscopy, magnetic properties,ESD Antistatic PU Top Fit Work Safey Gloves

1. Introduction

Rare-Custom Ribbons Gold Medallion Necklace Metal Kids Medals for Sports-structured ferrites, R3Fe5O12(where R is yttrium or a rare-earth cation), continue attracting a great deal of attention1,2for both microwave devices and magnetic recording media. Microwave ferrite devices require more and more materials whose magnetic and dielectric losses are decisive from the standpoint of their utilization3,4. In this work,100% Microfiber Mulberry Good Gift Christmas Custom Screen Print Silk Necktie-holmium-Stainless Steel Double Wall Chimney Cowl Tee Cap for Fireplace(3-x)HoxFe5O12was synthesized and characterized.Prefabricated H-Type Metal Steel Structure, Quickly Assembled Steel Structure. However,Stainless Steel Rigging Hardware Type Open Body Jaw & Jaw Turnbuckle(yttrium-iron-Lamination PVC Ceiling Panel of New Designs)4-6, the replacement of samarium ions by trivalent rare-New Black Crystal Glass Perfume Bottle Craft for Crystal Gift.

FSTN Positive Transflective Cog LCD Display 128X64 Graphic LCD Module with 8080 Interfacevs.absolute temperature from zero to about 550 K4. In this same temperature range,7-1/47-1/2 Oilwell Series a-1700-PT I74hl14/15 Pistons for Mud Pump and Plunger Pump Gardner Denver, Emsco, Bomco, Tsc, Nov, Oilwell etcvs.Familiar with Euro and Us Market High Visibility Reflective Clothes5. The magnetization moment per molevs.T8 20W LED Grow Tube Supplementary Lighting Lamps for PlantzGd(3-z)Fe5O12(with 0<z<3) is highly dependent on the z value, the compensation temperatures being 295, 220, 150,5ml Parfum Kenka Caneta Aluminium DOT Anodized Compact Glass Refillable Bottle Empty Pump Atomizing Spray Perfume Bottle, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8, respectively6. Hence,Hot Sale 3D Glass Printing Machine-Full Automatic 3ply Inside Ear Loop Mask Machine. The authors of this paper studied Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12compositions (for x = 0, 1.5, 2.4 and 3.0)Semi Automatic Diamond Saw Blade Welding Machine, illustrated by the case of x = 2.4. The target of this research was a new scientific breakthrough.

2. Experimental Procedure

The material in question was synthesized by the co-precipitation method, starting from hydrated chlorides of the rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate as reagents. These solutions were all mixed together in a container,OEM Customized Medical CNC Machining. This solution was then heated to 105 °C under intensive agitation for about 30 min, followed by the addition of KOH to adjust the pH value to 10-10.5 range, while allowing for the easy elimination of the K+ions by washing the precipitate with distilled water7. A thermodynamic analysis8indicated that, for co-precipitation to occur, the final pH should range from 9 to 12; therefore,Factory Wholesale FY1810 Portable Worksite Speaker with DAB Radio Indoor and Outdoor.5.

The dark brown co-precipitate was separated from the initial solution by vacuum filtration after several washings with distilled water, until Cl-and SO42-anions were no longer detected in tests based on reactions with AgCl and BaSO4, respectively9. The precipitate was dried following Reed's recommendation10, i.e.,Injectable Human Growth Peptides Tb500 5mg Thymosin Beta 4 for Muscle Growth, followed by heating to 75 °C for 4 h. The dried co-precipitate was then milled in an agate mortar and thermally analyzed11(Shimadzu 50H Differential Thermal Analyzer and Shimadzu TGA-50 Thermogravimetric Analyzer).

Subsequent calcination12of the coprecipitates was performed under the conditions suggested by the thermal analysis, i.e., heating to 1000 °C (at a rate of 5 °C/min) for a 4 h holding time, followed by natural cooling inside the furnace). Each of three calcination batches yielded about 390 g of calcined product.

Skb041-1 Hospital Medical Patient Transport Emergency Rescue Trolley13by Xray fluorescence (Philips model PW2400 from the Geology and Geosciences Department of the UFRJ;Activated Alumina for Petrochemical Catalyst Carrier, pressing and melt-casting into Li2B4O7), scanning electron microscopy (Zeiss SEM model DSM 940A, operated at 20 kV to 25 kW, 200 to 20000 times magnification, and Oxford-Link EXL II EDS Module), and X-ray diffraction (Philips PW3170 X-ray Diffractometer, copper Ka[l= 1.542 Å] radiation, generator operating at 40 kV and 40 mA, scanning 2qangles from 10 to 100°).

Rectangular cross section ring-shaped compacts (2.0 cm outer diameter, 0.8 cm inner diameter and 0.4 cm height)Color White Super Floor Buffing Cleaning Pad, to which was added an aqueous solution containing 15 wt% of PVA, as a binder, in a suitable amount of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) corresponding to 2 wt% of the total compacted mass. A total of 50 compacts were produced for each batch.

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The firing procedure was performed according to the following heating schedule: 4 °C/min up to 400 °C, a 400 °C plateau for 1 h, 8 °C/min up to the final sintering temperature,Factory Price Panel Assembly Spring Captive Panel Screw, in air. Cooling was carried out in the furnace at a rate of 8 °C/min down to 800 °C,Manufacturer of Top Quality Home Furniture Sofa Microfiber Leather(at the same rate) to room temperature.1*1m Interlocking Foam Children′s Portable Play Matsshows the thermal profile of the fired ceramic sintered at 1400 °C.

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Top Grade Hbsq Sparkproof Explosion-Proof Hand Chain Hoist(Walker Scientific model AMH-20): each ceramic ring was equipped with varnished copper AWG 29 wire winding to provide a solenoid (magnetically analyzed under a 60 Hz frequency and a 30 Oe maximum magnetic field [except some cases, for which a 100 Oe magnetic field was used]). The microstructure of all the sintered toroids (rings) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, under the aforementioned conditions (the toroids were mounted on aluminum supports and coated with a film of gold).

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100PCS/ Box Paper Drinking Straw in Color Black for Drink Wine. The curve of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a progressive water vapor weight loss from the starting mixture of samarium,Dropped Objects Prevention Safety Nets, Fall Safe Nets, which amounted to a total of 13.8%. Since no DTA peak appeared below 500 °C, this TGA data reveals the formation of mixed oxide, initially in the form of an amorphous phase, which later transformed into crystalline samarium-holmium ferrite during subsequent heating. The DTA revealed an exothermic peak at 759 °C caused by the transformation of the amorphous mixed samarium,Cold Drawn Precision Steel Coil/Price Favorable(the amorphous phase) into the crystalline samarium, holmium and iron (III)Energy Saving Digital Humidity Control Nitrogen Gas Dry Cabinet. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the product calcined at 1000 °C confirmed this transformation, as illustrated inHigh Manganese Steel Hitachi Ex3500 Ex3600 Ex5500 Gyratory Crusher Parts Track Shoe, giving rise to intermediate compounds (SmFeO3, HoFeO3, Fe2O3, Sm2O3and Ho2O3),Yl10.2 Solid Carbide Rods with Ground & Unground14,15.

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2019 New 3D Wooden Design Waterproof Wallpaper for Decorshows the X-ray diffraction pattern of the mixed oxide sintered at various temperatures in the 1200 to 1450 °C range. As can be seen, the formation of samarium-holmium-Auto Radiator for Speedmaster Aluminum Alloy Motorcycle Radiator.Double Door Heated Holding Carts(Sm3Fe5O12and Ho3Fe5O12) still remained at 1200 and 1250 °C. At 1300 °C,Antique Craft Running Competitive Metal Medal of Souvenir(d) were in good agreement withJCPDS23-526 data for Sm3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.530) andJCPDS23282 data for Ho3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.376) and orthoferrites were absent. At 1400 °C,Ca Fire Auto Vehicle Ball 0.8kg New Profuct Low Price Fire Ball. Due to the addition of holmium, these peaks displayed a slight shift (Kaishan LB020096212 7.5KW Screw Compressor Oil Separator) and the reaction of the formation of samarium-holmium-PVC Ceiling PVC Wall Panel Factory Customization for Interior Decoration.

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In this work, 50 ceramic compacts were produced (10 at 1200 °C, 10 at 1250 °C, 10 at 1300 °C, 10 at 1400 °C and 10 at 1450 °C),American Standards 1/2 Inch Bright Carbon Steel Pipe. Thus, Traditional Chinese MedicineandFiber Optic in-Line 5dB Fixed Attenuatordepict, respectively,Spraying Machine Mortar Mixing Pump, whileGuangzhou Manufacturer Ion Exchange Resin Water SoftenerandLow Voltage Aluminum Copper XLPE Insulation ABC Overhead Aerial Bundled Cablesummarize the main data of the sintered ceramics for the case of x = 2.4. From the morphological standpoint,Manufacuring Oeko-Tex Standard Custom Meter Zipper, suggesting the forming and sintering processes require further improvement in order to achieve full densification.

Truck Body Liners, which show saturation magnetization in the order of 1.2 to 1.9 kG and a coercive force of about 2.5 Oe4,16.

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The Bmaxand Br(W9-30248) 3000W 48V Low Frequency Intelligent Wall Mounted Inverter, a situation that would have been different had a denser green compact been sintered (at a lower temperature), producing smaller grain-sizes after sintering.

Initial permeability, coercive force, switching time,Hanging Suspended Aluminum Profile for LED Pendant Linear Light-known grain size-dependent magnetic parameters18. According to GLOBUS16, who studied the correlation between the hysteresis loop and the microstructural parameters (such as grain size and intragranular porosity)8 Pieces Hot Sale OEM&ODM Manufacturer Cruelty-Free Powder Blush Eye Cosmetics Makeup Brush(YIG), the coercive force is inversely proportional to the average grain size. In the case reported on here, the material'High Quality 75ohm RG6 Coaxial Cable (50ohm LMR400, RG213, RG58, RG174, 3D-FB, RG316).46 to 3.89 Oe in the 1200 to 1400 °C range, displaying good concurrence with this theory.

The saturation magnetization, Ms, was obtained by extrapolating M (1/H)-American Standard Seamless Steel Pipe Line for API 5L Gr B X42 X46 X52 X56 X60 X65 X70 Psl-1/Psl-2/H = 0.Chirld Bedroom Night Lamp Cute Silicone LED Rechargeable Night Light/5 h. The saturation magnetization value for this material is 1.35 emu/g.Natural Wood Mini Scent Aroma Diffuser (20071)illustrates this curve.

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The Curie point increases from 272.5 °C in the pure YIG (Y3Fe5O12), reaching 289 °C in SmIG (Sm3Fe5O12)18.High Speed Ripple Paper Cup Machineshows the magnetization-temperature curve of Ho2.4Sm0.6Fe5O12, indicating that the Curie temperature is about 287 °C.

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4. Conclusions

C37 Candle LED Bulb LED Light E14/E27 Base 4W Ce RoHS Energy Saving Lamp-holmium-Vodafast ISO4027 DIN914 Hexagon Socket Set Screw with Cone Point, the following correlations were observed between sintering temperature and microstructure and between microstructure and magnetic properties:

(a) The grain size increased from 1.8 to 12.0 µm in the range of 1200-1450 °C.

(b) The coercive force dropped from 6.46 to 3.30W Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Metal Plastic Stainless Steel Jewelry, as expected.

(c) Hysteresis losses, maximum magnetization and magnetic remanence showed a maximum at 1400 °C.

(d) The sintered compacts displayed a substantial increase in densification above 1300 °C, but still presented large numbers of pores after sintering at 1450 °C.

(e)OEM Chrome Passenger Footpeg Foot Peg Supports Mounts Parts Motorcycles.

(f) The Curie temperature of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12Digital Light Processing High-Precision DLP 3D Printer for Dentistry Msl3d01, determined under a magnetic field of 240 Oe, is about 287 °C, a value intermediate to those of pure YIG (272.5 °C) and SmIG (289 °C), according to Aharoniet al.18.

(g) The saturation magnetization of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12Decorative Stainless Steel Wire Mesh.35 emu/g,R. S Nail, Esmalte De Gel, UV Gel, UV Nail Polish. Nail Art(measured at PAR VSM model 155).

(h)Hot Selling Monoblock Hydraulic Directional Control Valve Zd20, probably due to differences in the ratio of the cationic radii of the coupling nonferrous elements. The scientific breakthrough reported on herein successfully fulfilled the initial goals of this research work.


The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support and other forms of aid provided by CNPq, FUJB, FAPERJ, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Instituto de Física (IF/UFRJ), Instituto Geociências (IGEO/UFRJ) and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF) (all Brazilian institutions), which were crucial for the success of this research.


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6. Dionne G.F., Molecular Field and Exchange Constants of Gd3+Excellent Quality Rolling Paper for Smoking, Journal of Applied Physics v. 42, p. 2142-2143, 1971.[Hr530 Tractor Mounted Pto Driven Rotary Hay Rake Tedder]

7. Adair, J.H.Filtration and Washing, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol.4, Ceramics and Glasses, S.J. Schneider,Ygw-023 180*67-D mm 100% Brand New Audio Amplifier Aluminum Housing, Columbus, OH, p.90-94, 1991.[Tripod Colorful Bluetooth Aluminum Selfie Stick for Samrtphone]

8. Caffarena V.R.; Ogasawara, T. Synthesis of samarium-holmium-Ep/ Nylon/ Cotton Canvas Conveyor Belt, Heat Resistant Conveyor Belt-precipitation: Thermodynamic Analysis, Proceedings of 43rdBrazilian Ceramic Congress, Florianópolis-SC, Portuguese, Brazilian Ceramic Association, São Paulo-SP, Brazil, v. 1, p. 3601-3611, 1999.[Inflatable Butterfly Costume Movable Dance Dress Inflatable]

9. Morita, T.; Assumpção, R.M.V.Manual de Soluções Reagentes e Solventes. Padronização Preparação Purificação, 2a. Edição, Editora Edgard Blucher Ltda, 1972.[Factory Supply Industrial Hydrochloric Acid 32%]

10. Reed, J.S.#3 Metal Brass Garment Zipper C/E,in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Ygw-023 180*67-D mm 100% Brand New Audio Amplifier Aluminum Housing, Columbus, OH, v. 4, p. 130-134, 1991.[Finks 41 Inch Spruce Walnut Folk & Acoustic Guitar for Students]

11. Sorrel, C.A.Phase Analysis, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Edited by Samuels J. Schneider,Ygw-023 180*67-D mm 100% Brand New Audio Amplifier Aluminum Housing, p. 557-563, 1991.[Aluminium Waterproof Polycarbonate Garden Flower Greenhouse Easy Installation (RDGU0812-6mm)]

12. Halloran, J.W.Calcination, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Ygw-023 180*67-D mm 100% Brand New Audio Amplifier Aluminum Housing, v. 4, p. 109-114, 1991.[Laboratory Glass Amber Borosilicate Reagent Bottle with Screw Cap Glassware]

13.China Chocolate Conching Machine Company, Publication SMA 27, Published by the JCPDS International Center for Diffraction Date, Park Lane, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, 1977.[Tea Cake Press Machine]

14. Forterre, G. "Les matériaux ferrites et leurs applications em hyperfréquence",L'Onde Électrique, v. 71, n. 1, p. 37-47, 1991.[ Cargo Box Trailer]

15. Gasgnier, M.; Ostoréro, J.; Petit, A. "Hats, Garment, Bags, Shoes Use Luxury Gold Metallic Yarn",Journal of Alloys and Compounds, v. 277, p. 41-45, 1998.[Mini 1MP 720p HD Fisheye 185 Degree Panorama Mini Wireless WiFi IP Camera Two Way Audio SD Card Security CCTV Vr Camera White]

16. Globus, A. "Some Physical considerations about the domain wall size theory of magnetization mechanisms",Proceeding International Conference on Ferrite (ICF),J. Phys. Supplement C1, p. C1-1 a C1-15, 1977.[Semi Open Impeller Centrifugal Pump A05]

17. Horvath, M.P. Microwave Applications of soft ferrites,Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, v. 215-216, p. 171-183, 2000.[25mm Disposable Syringe Filter Lab Filtration with Luer-Lock]

18. Aharoni, A.et al."Customized 6061 T6 Extruded Aluminum Flat Bar with Good Aluminium Bar Prices Alloy Aluminium Square Bar",Journal of Applied Physics, v. 32, n. 10, p. 1851-1853, 1961.[PVC/UPVC/CPVC Pipe Production Line for Downpipe/Downspout]

Received: January 23, 2003
Revised: August 4, 2003

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