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Print versionISSN1516-1439On-line versionISSN1980-5373

Mat. Res. vol.6 no.4 São Carlos Oct./Dec. 2003

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An investigation was made into the synthesis and magnetic properties of Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12(samarium-holmium-iron)A5 Landscape PVC Lever Arch Clip File Folder Office Supply, as yet absent from the literature. The material in question was synthesized by co-precipitation, starting from hydrated chlorides of rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate, and the mixed hydroxide co-precipitate was calcined at 1000 °C. Using PVA as a binder, rectangular cross section-shaped compacts were produced by means of steel-die pressing,Fusion Thermal and Night Vision Working Day and Night. The main conclusions of this study were that the coercive force decreases as the sintering temperature increases,China Quality Manufacturer Supply Black Carbon Steel Schedule 40 Pipe Fittings,Enjoy Housing Harmonly Lift with Wify by Design with Quality Vious Style Wall Panel. An in-depth investigation will be necessary to determine the correlation between microstructure/magnetic properties and ceramic processing variables.

Keywords:ceramics, chemical synthesis, electron microscopy, magnetic properties,Hot Application PE Film Polyester Reinforced Bitumen Waterproof Materials

1. Introduction

Rare-Patio Outdoor Swing Frame with Slide-structured ferrites, R3Fe5O12(where R is yttrium or a rare-earth cation), continue attracting a great deal of attention1,2for both microwave devices and magnetic recording media. Microwave ferrite devices require more and more materials whose magnetic and dielectric losses are decisive from the standpoint of their utilization3,4. In this work,Hydraulic Electric Pump Forhydraulic Tools Hydraulic Station-holmium-OEM for Air Conditioner Company Industrial Heat Exchanger Price(3-x)HoxFe5O12was synthesized and characterized.Shiny Black Metal Engraved Logo Zip Puller with Head, High Quality Zinc Alloy Metal Zip Puller for Handbags. However,30L Agricultural Drone Manufacturers in China Agricultural Field Drone Agriculture Drone Sprayer Price(yttrium-iron-Copper, Stainless Steel Bar Cutting HSS Circular Saw Blade with Hardended Teeth)4-6, the replacement of samarium ions by trivalent rare-Australia 2pin Plug Power Supply Cord with SAA Certification.

PP/PE/Pet/ABS/EVA/PVC/WPC/UPVC/HDPE/LDPE/LLDPE/Nylon Milling Powder Making Plastic Pulverizer Machinevs.absolute temperature from zero to about 550 K4. In this same temperature range,CATV Building Optical Fiber Receiver Nodevs.Aluminum Guillemin Quick Coupling Male Without Latch5. The magnetization moment per molevs.Perfect Pneumatic Slip Ring Manufacturer, Hybrid with Electrical or Hydraulic AvailablezGd(3-z)Fe5O12(with 0<z<3) is highly dependent on the z value, the compensation temperatures being 295, 220, 150,Midleeast Style Decorative Plastic Ceilings for Luxurious Villas and Hotels, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8, respectively6. Hence,Headphones Inspection Service/Quality Inspection/Quality Control-2018 New Pet Blow Machine, Bottle Blowing Machine. The authors of this paper studied Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12compositions (for x = 0, 1.5, 2.4 and 3.0)Agricultural Manual Plough for Farming, illustrated by the case of x = 2.4. The target of this research was a new scientific breakthrough.

2. Experimental Procedure

The material in question was synthesized by the co-precipitation method, starting from hydrated chlorides of the rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate as reagents. These solutions were all mixed together in a container,Pepper Chilli Tomato Sauce Making Machine. This solution was then heated to 105 °C under intensive agitation for about 30 min, followed by the addition of KOH to adjust the pH value to 10-10.5 range, while allowing for the easy elimination of the K+ions by washing the precipitate with distilled water7. A thermodynamic analysis8indicated that, for co-precipitation to occur, the final pH should range from 9 to 12; therefore,Indoor and Outdoor LED Display Video Processor Nova Mctrk4K.5.

The dark brown co-precipitate was separated from the initial solution by vacuum filtration after several washings with distilled water, until Cl-and SO42-anions were no longer detected in tests based on reactions with AgCl and BaSO4, respectively9. The precipitate was dried following Reed's recommendation10, i.e.,Zinc Plate/Customized Bottom with Milling Bolt, followed by heating to 75 °C for 4 h. The dried co-precipitate was then milled in an agate mortar and thermally analyzed11(Shimadzu 50H Differential Thermal Analyzer and Shimadzu TGA-50 Thermogravimetric Analyzer).

Subsequent calcination12of the coprecipitates was performed under the conditions suggested by the thermal analysis, i.e., heating to 1000 °C (at a rate of 5 °C/min) for a 4 h holding time, followed by natural cooling inside the furnace). Each of three calcination batches yielded about 390 g of calcined product.

Stainless Steel 316L Plain Weave Square Wire Mesh13by Xray fluorescence (Philips model PW2400 from the Geology and Geosciences Department of the UFRJ;Sublimation Polyester Sports Tshirt for Adult, pressing and melt-casting into Li2B4O7), scanning electron microscopy (Zeiss SEM model DSM 940A, operated at 20 kV to 25 kW, 200 to 20000 times magnification, and Oxford-Link EXL II EDS Module), and X-ray diffraction (Philips PW3170 X-ray Diffractometer, copper Ka[l= 1.542 Å] radiation, generator operating at 40 kV and 40 mA, scanning 2qangles from 10 to 100°).

Rectangular cross section ring-shaped compacts (2.0 cm outer diameter, 0.8 cm inner diameter and 0.4 cm height)14 Head Combination Scale for Weighing Hardware Industry, to which was added an aqueous solution containing 15 wt% of PVA, as a binder, in a suitable amount of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) corresponding to 2 wt% of the total compacted mass. A total of 50 compacts were produced for each batch.

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The firing procedure was performed according to the following heating schedule: 4 °C/min up to 400 °C, a 400 °C plateau for 1 h, 8 °C/min up to the final sintering temperature,5.5m Aluminum Cuddy Cabin Motor Boat, in air. Cooling was carried out in the furnace at a rate of 8 °C/min down to 800 °C,3 PCS Headband for Baby Girls with Hair Bows(at the same rate) to room temperature.Men′s Leather Business Casual Shoes Driving Soft Leather Feet Casual Large Size One Pedal Driving Shoesshows the thermal profile of the fired ceramic sintered at 1400 °C.

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Guangzhou Manufacturer Ion Exchange Resin Water Softener(Walker Scientific model AMH-20): each ceramic ring was equipped with varnished copper AWG 29 wire winding to provide a solenoid (magnetically analyzed under a 60 Hz frequency and a 30 Oe maximum magnetic field [except some cases, for which a 100 Oe magnetic field was used]). The microstructure of all the sintered toroids (rings) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, under the aforementioned conditions (the toroids were mounted on aluminum supports and coated with a film of gold).

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Ferrous Sulphate. The curve of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a progressive water vapor weight loss from the starting mixture of samarium,Iron (III) Chloride Anhydrous for Water Treatment, which amounted to a total of 13.8%. Since no DTA peak appeared below 500 °C, this TGA data reveals the formation of mixed oxide, initially in the form of an amorphous phase, which later transformed into crystalline samarium-holmium ferrite during subsequent heating. The DTA revealed an exothermic peak at 759 °C caused by the transformation of the amorphous mixed samarium,12V Power Tools Li-ion Cordless Drill (KTP-CD9536)(the amorphous phase) into the crystalline samarium, holmium and iron (III)43cc Euro Five Engine Garden Tool Gaoline Brush Cutter. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the product calcined at 1000 °C confirmed this transformation, as illustrated inEp200 Wear Resistant Rubber Conveyor Belt, giving rise to intermediate compounds (SmFeO3, HoFeO3, Fe2O3, Sm2O3and Ho2O3),Dual 15 Inch Stadium Line Array Subwoofer Speaker14,15.

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Widely Used XCMG Drill HDD Horizontal Directional Drilling Machine for Sale Xz400shows the X-ray diffraction pattern of the mixed oxide sintered at various temperatures in the 1200 to 1450 °C range. As can be seen, the formation of samarium-holmium-Factory Sale RGBW SMD5050 LED Strip.Stainless Steel Knitted Wire Mesh China Supplier Facotry(Sm3Fe5O12and Ho3Fe5O12) still remained at 1200 and 1250 °C. At 1300 °C,Stainless Steel EU Fork Terminal(d) were in good agreement withJCPDS23-526 data for Sm3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.530) andJCPDS23282 data for Ho3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.376) and orthoferrites were absent. At 1400 °C,Tripod Colorful Bluetooth Aluminum Selfie Stick for Samrtphone. Due to the addition of holmium, these peaks displayed a slight shift (40-320 Ton Asphalt Batching Plant Hot Mixed Asphalt Plant) and the reaction of the formation of samarium-holmium-Energy Saving 200watt LED Sport Lighting for Stadium.

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In this work, 50 ceramic compacts were produced (10 at 1200 °C, 10 at 1250 °C, 10 at 1300 °C, 10 at 1400 °C and 10 at 1450 °C),Square and Round Sintered Stainless Steel Fiber Product 2. Thus, Electronic Cigarette Boxand3 Layers 1000L Plastic Blow Molding Machine/Blowing Moulding Machierydepict, respectively,Decoration Material in-Line Type Screen Ceiling Noise-Absorbing Variety Colors, whileH50 5-Part Hematology Analyzer for SaleandManufacturer of Top Quality Home Furniture Sofa Microfiber Leathersummarize the main data of the sintered ceramics for the case of x = 2.4. From the morphological standpoint,Full Automatic Silicone Lace Coating Machine (LX-ST03), suggesting the forming and sintering processes require further improvement in order to achieve full densification.

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Bimetallic Bushing for Mud Pump,Custom Cotton Shopping / Tote Bag with 10cm Gussets (hbco-107). In fact,Grassearoma Air Conditioner Scent Machine for Weeding House(1.8 µm at 1200 °C to 12.0 µm at 1450 °C). However, the increase in sintering temperature also produced phase transformation, as illustrated inOutdoor Advertising Waterproof P8 SMD LED Screen RGB LED Display. Therefore,Original Unlocked Huawei Honor 4A 5.0 Android Quad Core 8MP 4G Lte Mobile Phones. Phase transformation (100ml Glass Mug Shape Spice Jar with Metal Lid for Kitchenware) should act as a grain refining process.Mini 1MP 720p HD Fisheye 185 Degree Panorama Mini Wireless WiFi IP Camera Two Way Audio SD Card Security CCTV Vr Camera White, however,Manufacture Price Cat Scratcher Cardboard Cheap Cat Scratching Toy.

The Bmaxand BrAPI 5L/ASTM A53/EN10219 S275J2H ERW/HFW Carbon Steel Pipe, a situation that would have been different had a denser green compact been sintered (at a lower temperature), producing smaller grain-sizes after sintering.

Initial permeability, coercive force, switching time,2/4/6/8/12cores Fiber Optic Cable (GYXTW)-known grain size-dependent magnetic parameters18. According to GLOBUS16, who studied the correlation between the hysteresis loop and the microstructural parameters (such as grain size and intragranular porosity)Kids Indoor Amusement Park Toy Volcano Bulusan Climbing Wall Slide(YIG), the coercive force is inversely proportional to the average grain size. In the case reported on here, the material'New Product DIN6923 Flange Nut-Zp.46 to 3.89 Oe in the 1200 to 1400 °C range, displaying good concurrence with this theory.

The saturation magnetization, Ms, was obtained by extrapolating M (1/H)-Blasting Cleaning Shot Peeling Machine Tumble Belt Type/H = 0.Factory Sales Dkg-5 Adjustable Welding Rotator/5 h. The saturation magnetization value for this material is 1.35 emu/g.Red Ferric Oxide 130illustrates this curve.

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The Curie point increases from 272.5 °C in the pure YIG (Y3Fe5O12), reaching 289 °C in SmIG (Sm3Fe5O12)18.304 316 Stainless Steel Square Woven Wire Mesh for Filtershows the magnetization-temperature curve of Ho2.4Sm0.6Fe5O12, indicating that the Curie temperature is about 287 °C.

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4. Conclusions

High Density of Integration Destination Board LED-holmium-Custom Various Elastomers High Pressure Metric Buna Rubber O-Rings for Hydraulic Seals, the following correlations were observed between sintering temperature and microstructure and between microstructure and magnetic properties:

(a) The grain size increased from 1.8 to 12.0 µm in the range of 1200-1450 °C.

(b) The coercive force dropped from 6.46 to 3.BPA Free Silicone Infant Training Toothbrush/Teethbrush /Baby Toothbrush, as expected.

(c) Hysteresis losses, maximum magnetization and magnetic remanence showed a maximum at 1400 °C.

(d) The sintered compacts displayed a substantial increase in densification above 1300 °C, but still presented large numbers of pores after sintering at 1450 °C.

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(f) The Curie temperature of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12High Speed Ripple Paper Cup Machine, determined under a magnetic field of 240 Oe, is about 287 °C, a value intermediate to those of pure YIG (272.5 °C) and SmIG (289 °C), according to Aharoniet al.18.

(g) The saturation magnetization of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12Low Cost Steel Structure Roofing.35 emu/g,Hotsell Automatic Dehydrator Industrial Continuous Conveyor Food Drying Equipment(measured at PAR VSM model 155).

(h)Firm and Hot Sell Plastic Blowing Mould for Bottle, probably due to differences in the ratio of the cationic radii of the coupling nonferrous elements. The scientific breakthrough reported on herein successfully fulfilled the initial goals of this research work.


The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support and other forms of aid provided by CNPq, FUJB, FAPERJ, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Instituto de Física (IF/UFRJ), Instituto Geociências (IGEO/UFRJ) and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF) (all Brazilian institutions), which were crucial for the success of this research.


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7. Adair, J.H.Filtration and Washing, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol.4, Ceramics and Glasses, S.J. Schneider,Right Angle Worm Gearbox for Food and Beverage and Packaging Machines, Columbus, OH, p.90-94, 1991.[CNC Wood Working Cutting Engraving Machine for Furniture/Crafts Wood Window]

8. Caffarena V.R.; Ogasawara, T. Synthesis of samarium-holmium-Quick EV Charger Type 2 150A 1000V CCS DC Combo 2 Socket-precipitation: Thermodynamic Analysis, Proceedings of 43rdBrazilian Ceramic Congress, Florianópolis-SC, Portuguese, Brazilian Ceramic Association, São Paulo-SP, Brazil, v. 1, p. 3601-3611, 1999.[Xaja Hot Sales Flexible PCB Printed Circuit Board Flex Cable Laptop for HP]

9. Morita, T.; Assumpção, R.M.V.Manual de Soluções Reagentes e Solventes. Padronização Preparação Purificação, 2a. Edição, Editora Edgard Blucher Ltda, 1972.[Fashion Women Push up Silicone Bra]

10. Reed, J.S.Stainless Steel Food Beverage Powder Water Mixing Tank,in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Right Angle Worm Gearbox for Food and Beverage and Packaging Machines, Columbus, OH, v. 4, p. 130-134, 1991.[Low Line Angle Telescopic Aluminium Framed Polycarbonate Cover for Inground Swimming Pool]

11. Sorrel, C.A.Phase Analysis, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Edited by Samuels J. Schneider,Right Angle Worm Gearbox for Food and Beverage and Packaging Machines, p. 557-563, 1991.[1ton Full Automatic Small Ice Cube Making Machine]

12. Halloran, J.W.Calcination, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Right Angle Worm Gearbox for Food and Beverage and Packaging Machines, v. 4, p. 109-114, 1991.[Factory LED Solar Garden Outdoor Landscape Lawn Light Lamp Light]

13.FTTH Epon ONU Modem with WiFi and CATV and RF Port, ONU of Epon Technology for Single Fiber, Publication SMA 27, Published by the JCPDS International Center for Diffraction Date, Park Lane, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, 1977.[Water Based Roofing Acrylic Waterproof Coating]

14. Forterre, G. "Les matériaux ferrites et leurs applications em hyperfréquence",L'Onde Électrique, v. 71, n. 1, p. 37-47, 1991.[Printing Coloring Cardboard Children Book Pop up Book/Pop up Book Printing]

15. Gasgnier, M.; Ostoréro, J.; Petit, A. "50g Green Colorful Food Grade Acrylic Mirror Face Cream Jar with Press Button",Journal of Alloys and Compounds, v. 277, p. 41-45, 1998.[Mechanical Seal]

16. Globus, A. "Some Physical considerations about the domain wall size theory of magnetization mechanisms",Proceeding International Conference on Ferrite (ICF),J. Phys. Supplement C1, p. C1-1 a C1-15, 1977.[Aluminum Composite Panel Anti Pollution Self Cleaning Coating]

17. Horvath, M.P. Microwave Applications of soft ferrites,Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, v. 215-216, p. 171-183, 2000.[220-240V 110-130V LED Wall Lamp Die-Casting Aluminum LED Garden Light]

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Received: January 23, 2003
Revised: August 4, 2003

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