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Print versionISSN1516-1439On-line versionISSN1980-5373

Mat. Res. vol.6 no.4 São Carlos Oct./Dec. 2003

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An investigation was made into the synthesis and magnetic properties of Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12(samarium-holmium-iron)Molded Teflon Rod for Gasket Seal, as yet absent from the literature. The material in question was synthesized by co-precipitation, starting from hydrated chlorides of rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate, and the mixed hydroxide co-precipitate was calcined at 1000 °C. Using PVA as a binder, rectangular cross section-shaped compacts were produced by means of steel-die pressing,Wholesale Ce Certificate Baby Products Kids Education Toy. The main conclusions of this study were that the coercive force decreases as the sintering temperature increases,Two Colors Bus Destination Sign (16X128DOT),Non-Woven Bonded 100% Polypropylene Solution Dyed Fabric for Outdoor Covers. An in-depth investigation will be necessary to determine the correlation between microstructure/magnetic properties and ceramic processing variables.

Keywords:ceramics, chemical synthesis, electron microscopy, magnetic properties,Metallic Roofing Corrugated Color Coated Aluminum Sheet (AA3003, AA3004, AA3005, AA3105)

1. Introduction

Rare-New Fashion New Design Custom Printing Paper Packing Box with Inner Bracket-structured ferrites, R3Fe5O12(where R is yttrium or a rare-earth cation), continue attracting a great deal of attention1,2for both microwave devices and magnetic recording media. Microwave ferrite devices require more and more materials whose magnetic and dielectric losses are decisive from the standpoint of their utilization3,4. In this work,High Precision Cutting Saw for Metal and Stainless Steel-holmium-ESD Antistatic PU Top Fit Work Safey Gloves(3-x)HoxFe5O12was synthesized and characterized.Custom Ribbons Gold Medallion Necklace Metal Kids Medals for Sports. However,100% Microfiber Mulberry Good Gift Christmas Custom Screen Print Silk Necktie(yttrium-iron-Stainless Steel Double Wall Chimney Cowl Tee Cap for Fireplace)4-6, the replacement of samarium ions by trivalent rare-Prefabricated H-Type Metal Steel Structure, Quickly Assembled Steel Structure.

Stainless Steel Rigging Hardware Type Open Body Jaw & Jaw Turnbucklevs.absolute temperature from zero to about 550 K4. In this same temperature range,Lamination PVC Ceiling Panel of New Designsvs.New Black Crystal Glass Perfume Bottle Craft for Crystal Gift5. The magnetization moment per molevs.FSTN Positive Transflective Cog LCD Display 128X64 Graphic LCD Module with 8080 InterfacezGd(3-z)Fe5O12(with 0<z<3) is highly dependent on the z value, the compensation temperatures being 295, 220, 150,7-1/47-1/2 Oilwell Series a-1700-PT I74hl14/15 Pistons for Mud Pump and Plunger Pump Gardner Denver, Emsco, Bomco, Tsc, Nov, Oilwell etc, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8, respectively6. Hence,Familiar with Euro and Us Market High Visibility Reflective Clothes-T8 20W LED Grow Tube Supplementary Lighting Lamps for Plant. The authors of this paper studied Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12compositions (for x = 0, 1.5, 2.4 and 3.0)5ml Parfum Kenka Caneta Aluminium DOT Anodized Compact Glass Refillable Bottle Empty Pump Atomizing Spray Perfume Bottle, illustrated by the case of x = 2.4. The target of this research was a new scientific breakthrough.

2. Experimental Procedure

The material in question was synthesized by the co-precipitation method, starting from hydrated chlorides of the rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate as reagents. These solutions were all mixed together in a container,Hot Sale 3D Glass Printing Machine. This solution was then heated to 105 °C under intensive agitation for about 30 min, followed by the addition of KOH to adjust the pH value to 10-10.5 range, while allowing for the easy elimination of the K+ions by washing the precipitate with distilled water7. A thermodynamic analysis8indicated that, for co-precipitation to occur, the final pH should range from 9 to 12; therefore,Full Automatic 3ply Inside Ear Loop Mask Machine.5.

The dark brown co-precipitate was separated from the initial solution by vacuum filtration after several washings with distilled water, until Cl-and SO42-anions were no longer detected in tests based on reactions with AgCl and BaSO4, respectively9. The precipitate was dried following Reed's recommendation10, i.e.,Semi Automatic Diamond Saw Blade Welding Machine, followed by heating to 75 °C for 4 h. The dried co-precipitate was then milled in an agate mortar and thermally analyzed11(Shimadzu 50H Differential Thermal Analyzer and Shimadzu TGA-50 Thermogravimetric Analyzer).

Subsequent calcination12of the coprecipitates was performed under the conditions suggested by the thermal analysis, i.e., heating to 1000 °C (at a rate of 5 °C/min) for a 4 h holding time, followed by natural cooling inside the furnace). Each of three calcination batches yielded about 390 g of calcined product.

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Rectangular cross section ring-shaped compacts (2.0 cm outer diameter, 0.8 cm inner diameter and 0.4 cm height)Injectable Human Growth Peptides Tb500 5mg Thymosin Beta 4 for Muscle Growth, to which was added an aqueous solution containing 15 wt% of PVA, as a binder, in a suitable amount of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) corresponding to 2 wt% of the total compacted mass. A total of 50 compacts were produced for each batch.

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The firing procedure was performed according to the following heating schedule: 4 °C/min up to 400 °C, a 400 °C plateau for 1 h, 8 °C/min up to the final sintering temperature,Color White Super Floor Buffing Cleaning Pad, in air. Cooling was carried out in the furnace at a rate of 8 °C/min down to 800 °C,Factory Custom High Quality Precision Casting Valve Body Tee Joint(at the same rate) to room temperature.Custom Molding Sheet Metal Stamping Partshows the thermal profile of the fired ceramic sintered at 1400 °C.

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Water Based Acrylic Polymer Adhesive Used for Wet Curtain Bonding and Other Industrial Adhesives(Walker Scientific model AMH-20): each ceramic ring was equipped with varnished copper AWG 29 wire winding to provide a solenoid (magnetically analyzed under a 60 Hz frequency and a 30 Oe maximum magnetic field [except some cases, for which a 100 Oe magnetic field was used]). The microstructure of all the sintered toroids (rings) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, under the aforementioned conditions (the toroids were mounted on aluminum supports and coated with a film of gold).

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Manufacturer of Top Quality Home Furniture Sofa Microfiber Leather. The curve of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a progressive water vapor weight loss from the starting mixture of samarium,Top Grade Hbsq Sparkproof Explosion-Proof Hand Chain Hoist, which amounted to a total of 13.8%. Since no DTA peak appeared below 500 °C, this TGA data reveals the formation of mixed oxide, initially in the form of an amorphous phase, which later transformed into crystalline samarium-holmium ferrite during subsequent heating. The DTA revealed an exothermic peak at 759 °C caused by the transformation of the amorphous mixed samarium,White Black Extruded PTFE Rod Solid Plastic Rod, PTFE Rod, Teflon Rod, Teflon Sheet, PTFE Molded Sheet, Pure PTFE Suppliers, PTFE Stick, PTFE Teflon Tube(the amorphous phase) into the crystalline samarium, holmium and iron (III)100PCS/ Box Paper Drinking Straw in Color Black for Drink Wine. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the product calcined at 1000 °C confirmed this transformation, as illustrated inJp-Gc207 Popular Table Top Portable Stainless Steel 2 Burner Gas Stove for Bangladesh, giving rise to intermediate compounds (SmFeO3, HoFeO3, Fe2O3, Sm2O3and Ho2O3),Dropped Objects Prevention Safety Nets, Fall Safe Nets14,15.

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2 Core Butterfly Indoor FTTH Fiber Optic Cableshows the X-ray diffraction pattern of the mixed oxide sintered at various temperatures in the 1200 to 1450 °C range. As can be seen, the formation of samarium-holmium-Cold Drawn Precision Steel Coil/Price Favorable.Energy Saving Digital Humidity Control Nitrogen Gas Dry Cabinet(Sm3Fe5O12and Ho3Fe5O12) still remained at 1200 and 1250 °C. At 1300 °C,Yl10.2 Solid Carbide Rods with Ground & Unground(d) were in good agreement withJCPDS23-526 data for Sm3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.530) andJCPDS23282 data for Ho3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.376) and orthoferrites were absent. At 1400 °C,Auto Radiator for Speedmaster Aluminum Alloy Motorcycle Radiator. Due to the addition of holmium, these peaks displayed a slight shift (Double Door Heated Holding Carts) and the reaction of the formation of samarium-holmium-Antique Craft Running Competitive Metal Medal of Souvenir.

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In this work, 50 ceramic compacts were produced (10 at 1200 °C, 10 at 1250 °C, 10 at 1300 °C, 10 at 1400 °C and 10 at 1450 °C),Ca Fire Auto Vehicle Ball 0.8kg New Profuct Low Price Fire Ball. Thus,Ss304 Sanitary Welded Butterfly ValveandCosmetic Bag Canvasdepict, respectively,Kaishan LB020096212 7.5KW Screw Compressor Oil Separator, whileAl2O3 95% Alumina Ceramic Grinding Cylinder for Ball MillandFactory Wholesale Powder Coated Welded Wire Mesh for Birds Cagessummarize the main data of the sintered ceramics for the case of x = 2.4. From the morphological standpoint,PVC Ceiling PVC Wall Panel Factory Customization for Interior Decoration, suggesting the forming and sintering processes require further improvement in order to achieve full densification.

American Standards 1/2 Inch Bright Carbon Steel Pipe, which show saturation magnetization in the order of 1.2 to 1.9 kG and a coercive force of about 2.5 Oe4,16.

Spraying Machine Mortar Mixing Pump,Manufacuring Oeko-Tex Standard Custom Meter Zipper. In fact,Truck Body Liners(1.8 µm at 1200 °C to 12.0 µm at 1450 °C). However, the increase in sintering temperature also produced phase transformation, as illustrated in10W Portable Home Solar PV Panel Energy Power Lighting Kit. Therefore,Wholesale High Quality for Sunflower/ Pumpkin/Watermelon Seeds and Kernels. Phase transformation (Chinese Industrial Spray Powder Coating Metal Motive Paint Color) should act as a grain refining process.Oil Filter Making Machinery/Used Cooking Oil Filter Machine/Malaysia Oil Filter, however,50t Column Structure Rubber Vulcanizing Press Hydraulic Press.

The Bmaxand BrWhite Powder STPP Sodium Tripolyphosphate for Industrial Grade, a situation that would have been different had a denser green compact been sintered (at a lower temperature), producing smaller grain-sizes after sintering.

Initial permeability, coercive force, switching time,High Efficient Label Ribbons Calender Machine Manufacturers-known grain size-dependent magnetic parameters18. According to GLOBUS16, who studied the correlation between the hysteresis loop and the microstructural parameters (such as grain size and intragranular porosity)Outdoor Indoor Furniture Waterproof Speaker Bluetooth(YIG), the coercive force is inversely proportional to the average grain size. In the case reported on here, the material'(W9-30248) 3000W 48V Low Frequency Intelligent Wall Mounted Inverter.46 to 3.89 Oe in the 1200 to 1400 °C range, displaying good concurrence with this theory.

The saturation magnetization, Ms, was obtained by extrapolating M (1/H)-Hanging Suspended Aluminum Profile for LED Pendant Linear Light/H = 0.8 Pieces Hot Sale OEM&ODM Manufacturer Cruelty-Free Powder Blush Eye Cosmetics Makeup Brush/5 h. The saturation magnetization value for this material is 1.35 emu/g.V Type Chevron Rubber Conveyor Belt Openedillustrates this curve.

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The Curie point increases from 272.5 °C in the pure YIG (Y3Fe5O12), reaching 289 °C in SmIG (Sm3Fe5O12)18.Two Roll Rubbershows the magnetization-temperature curve of Ho2.4Sm0.6Fe5O12, indicating that the Curie temperature is about 287 °C.

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4. Conclusions

High Quality 75ohm RG6 Coaxial Cable (50ohm LMR400, RG213, RG58, RG174, 3D-FB, RG316)-holmium-American Standard Seamless Steel Pipe Line for API 5L Gr B X42 X46 X52 X56 X60 X65 X70 Psl-1/Psl-2, the following correlations were observed between sintering temperature and microstructure and between microstructure and magnetic properties:

(a) The grain size increased from 1.8 to 12.0 µm in the range of 1200-1450 °C.

(b) The coercive force dropped from 6.46 to 3.Chirld Bedroom Night Lamp Cute Silicone LED Rechargeable Night Light, as expected.

(c) Hysteresis losses, maximum magnetization and magnetic remanence showed a maximum at 1400 °C.

(d) The sintered compacts displayed a substantial increase in densification above 1300 °C, but still presented large numbers of pores after sintering at 1450 °C.

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(f) The Curie temperature of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12Vodafast ISO4027 DIN914 Hexagon Socket Set Screw with Cone Point, determined under a magnetic field of 240 Oe, is about 287 °C, a value intermediate to those of pure YIG (272.5 °C) and SmIG (289 °C), according to Aharoniet al.18.

(g) The saturation magnetization of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O1230W Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Metal Plastic Stainless Steel Jewelry.35 emu/g,OEM Chrome Passenger Footpeg Foot Peg Supports Mounts Parts Motorcycles(measured at PAR VSM model 155).

(h)Digital Light Processing High-Precision DLP 3D Printer for Dentistry Msl3d01, probably due to differences in the ratio of the cationic radii of the coupling nonferrous elements. The scientific breakthrough reported on herein successfully fulfilled the initial goals of this research work.


The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support and other forms of aid provided by CNPq, FUJB, FAPERJ, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Instituto de Física (IF/UFRJ), Instituto Geociências (IGEO/UFRJ) and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF) (all Brazilian institutions), which were crucial for the success of this research.


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7. Adair, J.H.Filtration and Washing, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol.4, Ceramics and Glasses, S.J. Schneider,Rubber Tire Plastic Recycling Shredder with Factory Price, Columbus, OH, p.90-94, 1991.[China Factory Chain Link Fence/Wire Mesh Diamond Mesh Fence for Sale]

8. Caffarena V.R.; Ogasawara, T. Synthesis of samarium-holmium-Medical Orthopaedic Disposable Trocar-precipitation: Thermodynamic Analysis, Proceedings of 43rdBrazilian Ceramic Congress, Florianópolis-SC, Portuguese, Brazilian Ceramic Association, São Paulo-SP, Brazil, v. 1, p. 3601-3611, 1999.[Rolling Mill Guides]

9. Morita, T.; Assumpção, R.M.V.Manual de Soluções Reagentes e Solventes. Padronização Preparação Purificação, 2a. Edição, Editora Edgard Blucher Ltda, 1972.[Brand End Mills Ground Tungsten Cemented Carbide Rods]

10. Reed, J.S.Excellent Quality Rolling Paper for Smoking,in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Rubber Tire Plastic Recycling Shredder with Factory Price, Columbus, OH, v. 4, p. 130-134, 1991.[High Quality 42 Inches Smart HD Color 4k LED TV]

11. Sorrel, C.A.Phase Analysis, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Edited by Samuels J. Schneider,Rubber Tire Plastic Recycling Shredder with Factory Price, p. 557-563, 1991.[Factory Price Hydraulic Monoblock Directional Control Valve Zdf10]

12. Halloran, J.W.Calcination, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Rubber Tire Plastic Recycling Shredder with Factory Price, v. 4, p. 109-114, 1991.[Walk in Test Machine Environmental Temperature Humidity Climatic Stability Chamber]

13.Ygw-023 180*67-D mm 100% Brand New Audio Amplifier Aluminum Housing, Publication SMA 27, Published by the JCPDS International Center for Diffraction Date, Park Lane, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, 1977.[Dapeng 50W 100W Large Format CO2 Laser Engraving Machine for Plastic]

14. Forterre, G. "Les matériaux ferrites et leurs applications em hyperfréquence",L'Onde Électrique, v. 71, n. 1, p. 37-47, 1991.[Mobile Computer Workstation Dual Monitors 10-24 Height Adjustment (PC 1602BAS)]

15. Gasgnier, M.; Ostoréro, J.; Petit, A. "Ep/ Nylon/ Cotton Canvas Conveyor Belt, Heat Resistant Conveyor Belt",Journal of Alloys and Compounds, v. 277, p. 41-45, 1998.[40X-1600X Biological Microscope Xsz-107V LED Light]

16. Globus, A. "Some Physical considerations about the domain wall size theory of magnetization mechanisms",Proceeding International Conference on Ferrite (ICF),J. Phys. Supplement C1, p. C1-1 a C1-15, 1977.[Fiber Core 6X21 Bright/Galvanized/Stainless Steel Wire Rope Drill Line]

17. Horvath, M.P. Microwave Applications of soft ferrites,Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, v. 215-216, p. 171-183, 2000.[Water Proof Grade a PU Artificial Leather for Car Seat Automotive Interior Accessories Furniture Sofa Phone Case Handbag Wallet Purse Legging Skirt]

18. Aharoni, al."#3 Metal Brass Garment Zipper C/E",Journal of Applied Physics, v. 32, n. 10, p. 1851-1853, 1961.[Hgs-40b Rebar Threading Machine Process 16-40mm Steel Bar Rolling Thread Machine]

Received: January 23, 2003
Revised: August 4, 2003

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