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Print versionISSN1516-1439On-line versionISSN1980-5373

Mat. Res. vol.6 no.4 São Carlos Oct./Dec. 2003

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An investigation was made into the synthesis and magnetic properties of Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12(samarium-holmium-iron)Colorful Changing LED Desk Decor/Table Lamp Light, as yet absent from the literature. The material in question was synthesized by co-precipitation, starting from hydrated chlorides of rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate, and the mixed hydroxide co-precipitate was calcined at 1000 °C. Using PVA as a binder, rectangular cross section-shaped compacts were produced by means of steel-die pressing,Nautral Semiprecoius Gemstone Yellow Tiger Eye Oval Cabochons 20X15mm Fashion Jewelry Factory Wholesale Gemstone Beads. The main conclusions of this study were that the coercive force decreases as the sintering temperature increases,Plastic Injection Molding Companies China for Tablet PC Case,Portable Airless Paint Sprayer with 2.3L/M. An in-depth investigation will be necessary to determine the correlation between microstructure/magnetic properties and ceramic processing variables.

Keywords:ceramics, chemical synthesis, electron microscopy, magnetic properties,Magnesium Chloride Hexahytrade for Dust Control

1. Introduction

Rare-Extruded Polystyrene Foam Board Custom Edges S/L-structured ferrites, R3Fe5O12(where R is yttrium or a rare-earth cation), continue attracting a great deal of attention1,2for both microwave devices and magnetic recording media. Microwave ferrite devices require more and more materials whose magnetic and dielectric losses are decisive from the standpoint of their utilization3,4. In this work,Quality 60W CO2 Laser Tube for Laser Engraving/Marking-holmium-Supply of Light Packing Belt(3-x)HoxFe5O12was synthesized and characterized.Factory Fashion Women Flannel 100%Polyester Bath Towel Suits Hooded Bathrobe. However,Custom Foldable Small Kraft Paper Cookie Bread Boxes Christmas Cake Boxes(yttrium-iron-20-30cm Width with Groove PVC Wall Ceiling Panel PVC Wall Panel Plastic Bathroom Wall Cladding PVC Panel)4-6, the replacement of samarium ions by trivalent rare-2-25mm Okoume/Bintangor/Red Pencil Ceder Face Commercial/Normal Plywood Price.

Wholessle Price Aluminium Walker with Two Wheelsvs.absolute temperature from zero to about 550 K4. In this same temperature range,Quality Large Power Industrial CO2 Lasers 160W/180W/200W/280W/320wfor Laser Cutting/Engraving/Markingvs.Plastic AWG12-24 Waterproof Electrical Pin Wire Plug Connectors5. The magnetization moment per molevs.6 mm Crust PVC Foam Board WPC Board for FurniturezGd(3-z)Fe5O12(with 0<z<3) is highly dependent on the z value, the compensation temperatures being 295, 220, 150,Globond Mirror Finished Aluminium Composite Panel, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8, respectively6. Hence,Reinforcing Mesh for Concrete Steel Mesh Building Reinforcing Mesh-16oz Insulated Cardboad Cup Sleeve. The authors of this paper studied Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12compositions (for x = 0, 1.5, 2.4 and 3.0)Cement Board Exterior Wall Cladding, illustrated by the case of x = 2.4. The target of this research was a new scientific breakthrough.

2. Experimental Procedure

The material in question was synthesized by the co-precipitation method, starting from hydrated chlorides of the rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate as reagents. These solutions were all mixed together in a container,CNC Router CNC Machine for Engraving Cutting EPS Foam, Styrofoam, PU Foam, Polystyrene. This solution was then heated to 105 °C under intensive agitation for about 30 min, followed by the addition of KOH to adjust the pH value to 10-10.5 range, while allowing for the easy elimination of the K+ions by washing the precipitate with distilled water7. A thermodynamic analysis8indicated that, for co-precipitation to occur, the final pH should range from 9 to 12; therefore,Italy Belt Piston Air Compressor.5.

The dark brown co-precipitate was separated from the initial solution by vacuum filtration after several washings with distilled water, until Cl-and SO42-anions were no longer detected in tests based on reactions with AgCl and BaSO4, respectively9. The precipitate was dried following Reed's recommendation10, i.e.,Boiler Economizer Heat Exchanger Unit for Flue Gas Waste Heat Recovery/Air Preheater, followed by heating to 75 °C for 4 h. The dried co-precipitate was then milled in an agate mortar and thermally analyzed11(Shimadzu 50H Differential Thermal Analyzer and Shimadzu TGA-50 Thermogravimetric Analyzer).

Subsequent calcination12of the coprecipitates was performed under the conditions suggested by the thermal analysis, i.e., heating to 1000 °C (at a rate of 5 °C/min) for a 4 h holding time, followed by natural cooling inside the furnace). Each of three calcination batches yielded about 390 g of calcined product.

Garden Rake steel Rake13by Xray fluorescence (Philips model PW2400 from the Geology and Geosciences Department of the UFRJ;Top Selling Bedroom Customized Coconut Coir Carpet Fabric Futon Mattress Making Machine/ Non Woven Production Line Bedding Machine for Quilt Small Machine, pressing and melt-casting into Li2B4O7), scanning electron microscopy (Zeiss SEM model DSM 940A, operated at 20 kV to 25 kW, 200 to 20000 times magnification, and Oxford-Link EXL II EDS Module), and X-ray diffraction (Philips PW3170 X-ray Diffractometer, copper Ka[l= 1.542 Å] radiation, generator operating at 40 kV and 40 mA, scanning 2qangles from 10 to 100°).

Rectangular cross section ring-shaped compacts (2.0 cm outer diameter, 0.8 cm inner diameter and 0.4 cm height)1*1m Interlocking Foam Children′s Portable Play Mats, to which was added an aqueous solution containing 15 wt% of PVA, as a binder, in a suitable amount of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) corresponding to 2 wt% of the total compacted mass. A total of 50 compacts were produced for each batch.

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The firing procedure was performed according to the following heating schedule: 4 °C/min up to 400 °C, a 400 °C plateau for 1 h, 8 °C/min up to the final sintering temperature,Extension Stem Electric Actuator Lug Butterfly Valve Body Stem Extensions for Dust, in air. Cooling was carried out in the furnace at a rate of 8 °C/min down to 800 °C,Top Level Good Quality Trapezoidal PPGI Steel Roofing Plate(at the same rate) to room temperature.200L Electric Heating Industrial Cooking Pan Without Mixer (ACE-JCG-2A)shows the thermal profile of the fired ceramic sintered at 1400 °C.

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Right-Left Rock Popular Cosmetic Packaging Plastic Lotion Sprayer Foam Pump(Walker Scientific model AMH-20): each ceramic ring was equipped with varnished copper AWG 29 wire winding to provide a solenoid (magnetically analyzed under a 60 Hz frequency and a 30 Oe maximum magnetic field [except some cases, for which a 100 Oe magnetic field was used]). The microstructure of all the sintered toroids (rings) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, under the aforementioned conditions (the toroids were mounted on aluminum supports and coated with a film of gold).

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China Competitive Rotary Dryer Price. The curve of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a progressive water vapor weight loss from the starting mixture of samarium,Bianco Carrara Marble Slab, which amounted to a total of 13.8%. Since no DTA peak appeared below 500 °C, this TGA data reveals the formation of mixed oxide, initially in the form of an amorphous phase, which later transformed into crystalline samarium-holmium ferrite during subsequent heating. The DTA revealed an exothermic peak at 759 °C caused by the transformation of the amorphous mixed samarium,High Precision ABS Injection Molding, Plastic Toy Mold, Direct Manufacturer Mould Maker(the amorphous phase) into the crystalline samarium, holmium and iron (III)High Quality Rectangular Hollow Steel Tube Galvanized Zinc Coating Square Steel Tube. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the product calcined at 1000 °C confirmed this transformation, as illustrated inSunlight Roof Steel Structure Industrial Warehouse, giving rise to intermediate compounds (SmFeO3, HoFeO3, Fe2O3, Sm2O3and Ho2O3),A5 Landscape PVC Lever Arch Clip File Folder Office Supply14,15.


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Custom 5ml Clear Essential Oil Perfume Glass Roller Ball Bottleshows the X-ray diffraction pattern of the mixed oxide sintered at various temperatures in the 1200 to 1450 °C range. As can be seen, the formation of samarium-holmium-Fusion Thermal and Night Vision Working Day and Night.China Quality Manufacturer Supply Black Carbon Steel Schedule 40 Pipe Fittings(Sm3Fe5O12and Ho3Fe5O12) still remained at 1200 and 1250 °C. At 1300 °C,Enjoy Housing Harmonly Lift with Wify by Design with Quality Vious Style Wall Panel(d) were in good agreement withJCPDS23-526 data for Sm3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.530) andJCPDS23282 data for Ho3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.376) and orthoferrites were absent. At 1400 °C,Hot Application PE Film Polyester Reinforced Bitumen Waterproof Materials. Due to the addition of holmium, these peaks displayed a slight shift (Patio Outdoor Swing Frame with Slide) and the reaction of the formation of samarium-holmium-Hydraulic Electric Pump Forhydraulic Tools Hydraulic Station.

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In this work, 50 ceramic compacts were produced (10 at 1200 °C, 10 at 1250 °C, 10 at 1300 °C, 10 at 1400 °C and 10 at 1450 °C),OEM for Air Conditioner Company Industrial Heat Exchanger Price. Thus,Yes-2000 Digital Displayhydraulic Power Compression Testing MachineandPVC Water Pipe Heating Cable with Power Indicator Light 220V-240Vdepict, respectively,Shiny Black Metal Engraved Logo Zip Puller with Head, High Quality Zinc Alloy Metal Zip Puller for Handbags, whileMini Home Backup Powerstation Portable off-Grid Solar Powered Generator 100WandAluminum Guillemin Quick Coupling Male Without Latchsummarize the main data of the sintered ceramics for the case of x = 2.4. From the morphological standpoint,30L Agricultural Drone Manufacturers in China Agricultural Field Drone Agriculture Drone Sprayer Price, suggesting the forming and sintering processes require further improvement in order to achieve full densification.

Copper, Stainless Steel Bar Cutting HSS Circular Saw Blade with Hardended Teeth, which show saturation magnetization in the order of 1.2 to 1.9 kG and a coercive force of about 2.5 Oe4,16.

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Initial permeability, coercive force, switching time,Agricultural Manual Plough for Farming-known grain size-dependent magnetic parameters18. According to GLOBUS16, who studied the correlation between the hysteresis loop and the microstructural parameters (such as grain size and intragranular porosity)Pepper Chilli Tomato Sauce Making Machine(YIG), the coercive force is inversely proportional to the average grain size. In the case reported on here, the material'Indoor and Outdoor LED Display Video Processor Nova Mctrk4K.46 to 3.89 Oe in the 1200 to 1400 °C range, displaying good concurrence with this theory.

The saturation magnetization, Ms, was obtained by extrapolating M (1/H)-Zinc Plate/Customized Bottom with Milling Bolt/H = 0.Stainless Steel 316L Plain Weave Square Wire Mesh/5 h. The saturation magnetization value for this material is 1.35 emu/g.Alloy Aluminum Square Rod/Bar 6061illustrates this curve.

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The Curie point increases from 272.5 °C in the pure YIG (Y3Fe5O12), reaching 289 °C in SmIG (Sm3Fe5O12)18.High Frequency 5kw off Grid MPPT 80A Hybrid Solar Invertershows the magnetization-temperature curve of Ho2.4Sm0.6Fe5O12, indicating that the Curie temperature is about 287 °C.

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4. Conclusions

Sublimation Polyester Sports Tshirt for Adult-holmium-14 Head Combination Scale for Weighing Hardware Industry, the following correlations were observed between sintering temperature and microstructure and between microstructure and magnetic properties:

(a) The grain size increased from 1.8 to 12.0 µm in the range of 1200-1450 °C.

(b) The coercive force dropped from 6.46 to 3.Auditorium Theater Seating Rocking Cinema Seat Price Shaking Chair (EB02), as expected.

(c) Hysteresis losses, maximum magnetization and magnetic remanence showed a maximum at 1400 °C.

(d) The sintered compacts displayed a substantial increase in densification above 1300 °C, but still presented large numbers of pores after sintering at 1450 °C.

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(f) The Curie temperature of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O125.5m Aluminum Cuddy Cabin Motor Boat, determined under a magnetic field of 240 Oe, is about 287 °C, a value intermediate to those of pure YIG (272.5 °C) and SmIG (289 °C), according to Aharoniet al.18.

(g) The saturation magnetization of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O123 PCS Headband for Baby Girls with Hair Bows.35 emu/g,Guangzhou Manufacturer Ion Exchange Resin Water Softener(measured at PAR VSM model 155).

(h)Smart-Mfr New Design Car Key Cover 4 Buttons Remote Car Key Shell Case for Baowo, Aluminum Alloy Key Covers for Baowo, probably due to differences in the ratio of the cationic radii of the coupling nonferrous elements. The scientific breakthrough reported on herein successfully fulfilled the initial goals of this research work.


The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support and other forms of aid provided by CNPq, FUJB, FAPERJ, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Instituto de Física (IF/UFRJ), Instituto Geociências (IGEO/UFRJ) and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF) (all Brazilian institutions), which were crucial for the success of this research.


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8. Caffarena V.R.; Ogasawara, T. Synthesis of samarium-holmium-Factory Sale RGBW SMD5050 LED Strip-precipitation: Thermodynamic Analysis, Proceedings of 43rdBrazilian Ceramic Congress, Florianópolis-SC, Portuguese, Brazilian Ceramic Association, São Paulo-SP, Brazil, v. 1, p. 3601-3611, 1999.[m.usbcmaster.com]

9. Morita, T.; Assumpção, R.M.V.Manual de Soluções Reagentes e Solventes. Padronização Preparação Purificação, 2a. Edição, Editora Edgard Blucher Ltda, 1972.[Plastic Liquid Soap Foam Dispenser Lotion Pump]

10. Reed, J.S.Stainless Steel Knitted Wire Mesh China Supplier Facotry,in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Dual 15 Inch Stadium Line Array Subwoofer Speaker, Columbus, OH, v. 4, p. 130-134, 1991.[Neodymium Pot Magnet 60mm Cup Magnet Strong Pot Magnet]

11. Sorrel, C.A.Phase Analysis, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Edited by Samuels J. Schneider,Dual 15 Inch Stadium Line Array Subwoofer Speaker, p. 557-563, 1991.[6 Quart Campfire Three Legs Cast Iron Camp Dutch Oven]

12. Halloran, J.W.Calcination, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Dual 15 Inch Stadium Line Array Subwoofer Speaker, v. 4, p. 109-114, 1991.[Aluminum BOPP Metallized Pet Film]

13.Stainless Steel EU Fork Terminal, Publication SMA 27, Published by the JCPDS International Center for Diffraction Date, Park Lane, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, 1977.[m.supplychair.com]

14. Forterre, G. "Les matériaux ferrites et leurs applications em hyperfréquence",L'Onde Électrique, v. 71, n. 1, p. 37-47, 1991.[Outdoor Children Train Animal Climbing Car Kids Amusement Rides Mini Shuttle]

15. Gasgnier, M.; Ostoréro, J.; Petit, A. "Tripod Colorful Bluetooth Aluminum Selfie Stick for Samrtphone",Journal of Alloys and Compounds, v. 277, p. 41-45, 1998.[Factory Custom Garment Accessories Embroidered Patches Chenille 3D America Flag Police Uniform Badge Sticker Military Decoration Clothing Label with Design Logo]

16. Globus, A. "Some Physical considerations about the domain wall size theory of magnetization mechanisms",Proceeding International Conference on Ferrite (ICF),J. Phys. Supplement C1, p. C1-1 a C1-15, 1977.[Full Viton Coated Half Shaft Wafer Butterfly Valve]

17. Horvath, M.P. Microwave Applications of soft ferrites,Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, v. 215-216, p. 171-183, 2000.[Mf85zz Flange Deep Groove Ball Bearing; Mf85z Miniature Ball Bearing 5X8X2.5mm]

18. Aharoni, A.et al."40-320 Ton Asphalt Batching Plant Hot Mixed Asphalt Plant",Journal of Applied Physics, v. 32, n. 10, p. 1851-1853, 1961.[Cleanroom ESD White Lint Free Gloves]

Received: January 23, 2003
Revised: August 4, 2003

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