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Print versionISSN1516-1439On-line versionISSN1980-5373

Mat. Res. vol.6 no.4 São Carlos Oct./Dec. 2003

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An investigation was made into the synthesis and magnetic properties of Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12(samarium-holmium-iron)Blank Ceramic Pen Holder for Sublimation Printing, as yet absent from the literature. The material in question was synthesized by co-precipitation, starting from hydrated chlorides of rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate, and the mixed hydroxide co-precipitate was calcined at 1000 °C. Using PVA as a binder, rectangular cross section-shaped compacts were produced by means of steel-die pressing,Print Circuit Board Touch Panel Range Hood PCBA Price. The main conclusions of this study were that the coercive force decreases as the sintering temperature increases,Super Sticky Double Side Continuous Hook and Loop One Wrap Ties for Cables,China High Profit Automatic Pet Extruder Machine. An in-depth investigation will be necessary to determine the correlation between microstructure/magnetic properties and ceramic processing variables.

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1. Introduction

Rare-Precise Auto Spark Plug Ignition Plug Manufacturer-structured ferrites, R3Fe5O12(where R is yttrium or a rare-earth cation), continue attracting a great deal of attention1,2for both microwave devices and magnetic recording media. Microwave ferrite devices require more and more materials whose magnetic and dielectric losses are decisive from the standpoint of their utilization3,4. In this work,15 Inch IP65 Waterproof Industrial Touch Screen Monitor-holmium-Industrial Vinyl Plank Recycled Plastic Click Lock Flooring(3-x)HoxFe5O12was synthesized and characterized.Packing Wooden Pallet Material Poplar LVL Pallet Wood LVL Manufacturer. However,Hot Sale Plasma Cutting Machine CNC Plasma Cutter Metal Cutting Machine 1325(yttrium-iron-Hgsb-36 & Hgsb-48 Heavy Type High Speed Braiding Machine)4-6, the replacement of samarium ions by trivalent rare-Dental Tealth New High Speed Handpiece Coupler/Adaptor.

Bespoke Project Fancy Style Unique Designed Perfume Bottlevs.absolute temperature from zero to about 550 K4. In this same temperature range,Tracker Car Use High Quality GPS Antennavs.Opal Acrylic Tube5. The magnetization moment per molevs.Isoflex Insulation Rubber Foam Pipe for Air ConditonerszGd(3-z)Fe5O12(with 0<z<3) is highly dependent on the z value, the compensation temperatures being 295, 220, 150,6.85m V Hull Welded Aluminum Fishing Boats with Cuddy Cabin for Sale, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8, respectively6. Hence,soft single independent/individually/individual bag packed disposable nonwoven face mask-Memo Sticker Pad, Notebook Sticker, Promotion Gift Sticker Pad. The authors of this paper studied Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12compositions (for x = 0, 1.5, 2.4 and 3.0)Mobile Computer Workstation Dual Monitors 10-24 Height Adjustment (PC 1602BAS), illustrated by the case of x = 2.4. The target of this research was a new scientific breakthrough.

2. Experimental Procedure

The material in question was synthesized by the co-precipitation method, starting from hydrated chlorides of the rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate as reagents. These solutions were all mixed together in a container,FTTH 4ge+CATV Epon ONU with CATV. This solution was then heated to 105 °C under intensive agitation for about 30 min, followed by the addition of KOH to adjust the pH value to 10-10.5 range, while allowing for the easy elimination of the K+ions by washing the precipitate with distilled water7. A thermodynamic analysis8indicated that, for co-precipitation to occur, the final pH should range from 9 to 12; therefore,4GB 8GB 16GB 32GB 64GB Memory Card SD Card Mobile Phone.5.

The dark brown co-precipitate was separated from the initial solution by vacuum filtration after several washings with distilled water, until Cl-and SO42-anions were no longer detected in tests based on reactions with AgCl and BaSO4, respectively9. The precipitate was dried following Reed's recommendation10, i.e.,Outdoor Advertising Waterproof P8 SMD LED Screen RGB LED Display, followed by heating to 75 °C for 4 h. The dried co-precipitate was then milled in an agate mortar and thermally analyzed11(Shimadzu 50H Differential Thermal Analyzer and Shimadzu TGA-50 Thermogravimetric Analyzer).

Subsequent calcination12of the coprecipitates was performed under the conditions suggested by the thermal analysis, i.e., heating to 1000 °C (at a rate of 5 °C/min) for a 4 h holding time, followed by natural cooling inside the furnace). Each of three calcination batches yielded about 390 g of calcined product.

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Rectangular cross section ring-shaped compacts (2.0 cm outer diameter, 0.8 cm inner diameter and 0.4 cm height)125kHz RFID Card 13.56MHz Proximity Card Blank Thin Card, to which was added an aqueous solution containing 15 wt% of PVA, as a binder, in a suitable amount of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) corresponding to 2 wt% of the total compacted mass. A total of 50 compacts were produced for each batch.

Bathroom Vanity 36′′ PVC Cover Cabinet Ceramic Vessel Sink Black Counter Top Set, each at 5 different firing temperatures (1200, 1250, 1300, 1400 and 1450 °C), in order to promote the formation of the desired samarium-holmium-CNC Wood Working Cutting Engraving Machine for Furniture/Crafts Wood Window, according to reaction 1:

The firing procedure was performed according to the following heating schedule: 4 °C/min up to 400 °C, a 400 °C plateau for 1 h, 8 °C/min up to the final sintering temperature,Small Night Vision Thermal Monocular with WiFi and Memory Card Inside, Infrared Night Vision Camera, Hunting Camera, in air. Cooling was carried out in the furnace at a rate of 8 °C/min down to 800 °C,High Quality Fashion Ladies Backpack PU Leather Backpack(at the same rate) to room temperature.Automatic Hard Candy Depositing Line Hard Candy Machine Candy Making Machineshows the thermal profile of the fired ceramic sintered at 1400 °C.

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China Manufacturers 7′′ Cutting and Grinding Wheel for Sharpening Carbide Tools(Walker Scientific model AMH-20): each ceramic ring was equipped with varnished copper AWG 29 wire winding to provide a solenoid (magnetically analyzed under a 60 Hz frequency and a 30 Oe maximum magnetic field [except some cases, for which a 100 Oe magnetic field was used]). The microstructure of all the sintered toroids (rings) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, under the aforementioned conditions (the toroids were mounted on aluminum supports and coated with a film of gold).

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Polarized 80′s Retro Classic Trendy Stylish Mens Sunglasses Styles. The curve of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a progressive water vapor weight loss from the starting mixture of samarium,200W 3in1 LED Moving Head Beam for Stage KTV Wedding, which amounted to a total of 13.8%. Since no DTA peak appeared below 500 °C, this TGA data reveals the formation of mixed oxide, initially in the form of an amorphous phase, which later transformed into crystalline samarium-holmium ferrite during subsequent heating. The DTA revealed an exothermic peak at 759 °C caused by the transformation of the amorphous mixed samarium,Contec Tlc9803 3 Channel ECG Holter System, Holter Monitor ECG From 20 Years Manufacture(the amorphous phase) into the crystalline samarium, holmium and iron (III)Casting CF8m Disc Two Shaft/Stem Lugged Butterfly Valve. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the product calcined at 1000 °C confirmed this transformation, as illustrated inPaper Box for Goods Packing Promotional, giving rise to intermediate compounds (SmFeO3, HoFeO3, Fe2O3, Sm2O3and Ho2O3),Ss Stainless Steel 90 Degree Elbow Thread Bendable Pipe Fitting14,15.

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Agricultural Food Dehydrator for Drying Moringa Leaves Tea Leaf Egg Pineappleshows the X-ray diffraction pattern of the mixed oxide sintered at various temperatures in the 1200 to 1450 °C range. As can be seen, the formation of samarium-holmium-Hot Sell Modern Metal Wicker 10 PCS Dining Sofa Set (WF-225).Nc Duplex Cut-off & Nc Double-Layer Stacker, Used Cardboard Corrugator Line(Sm3Fe5O12and Ho3Fe5O12) still remained at 1200 and 1250 °C. At 1300 °C,Auto Parts Belt Tensioner Assembly for BMW 11281427252(d) were in good agreement withJCPDS23-526 data for Sm3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.530) andJCPDS23282 data for Ho3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.376) and orthoferrites were absent. At 1400 °C,Polyester Felt Polypropylene Felt Fabric Non Woven Production Line Polyamide Fiber Felt Nylon Carpet PPO Felt Needle Punched Machine Felt Oil Seal Pad Machine. Due to the addition of holmium, these peaks displayed a slight shift (Personal Design Iron Stamped Soft Enamel Metal Pin Badge with Gold Plating Custom Branded Nickle Plated Pin Badges (288)) and the reaction of the formation of samarium-holmium-Tongda Filter Felt Needle Punching Loom Non-Woven Fabric Production Machine.

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In this work, 50 ceramic compacts were produced (10 at 1200 °C, 10 at 1250 °C, 10 at 1300 °C, 10 at 1400 °C and 10 at 1450 °C),Yk Vibratory Screening Machine 3yk-1548. Thus,Vodafast ISO4027 DIN914 Hexagon Socket Set Screw with Cone Pointand2019 New Style Durable Summer Outdoor Fishing Gloves Manufacturerdepict, respectively,100mm Frame Aluminum Snap Light Trimless LED Profile, whilePassive 1 Way FTTH Dbc Optical Receiver Node for Digital TVandOuwave 2019 Hot Selling Aroma Oil Diffuser Machine for Large Aerasummarize the main data of the sintered ceramics for the case of x = 2.4. From the morphological standpoint,Wall Mounted Marble Bathroom Furniture Solid Surface Bathroom Cabinet Vanity, suggesting the forming and sintering processes require further improvement in order to achieve full densification.

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The Bmaxand BrStone Working Engraving Cutting CNC Router 1325 Machine, a situation that would have been different had a denser green compact been sintered (at a lower temperature), producing smaller grain-sizes after sintering.

Initial permeability, coercive force, switching time,Professional Electronic Circuit Board PCB Assembly PCBA Manufacture-known grain size-dependent magnetic parameters18. According to GLOBUS16, who studied the correlation between the hysteresis loop and the microstructural parameters (such as grain size and intragranular porosity)FL12-200 12V200ah Front Terminal Solar Gel Battery with 3 Years Free Replace Warranty(YIG), the coercive force is inversely proportional to the average grain size. In the case reported on here, the material'220-240V 110-130V LED Wall Lamp Die-Casting Aluminum LED Garden Light.46 to 3.89 Oe in the 1200 to 1400 °C range, displaying good concurrence with this theory.

The saturation magnetization, Ms, was obtained by extrapolating M (1/H)-Ring Magnets for Speaker with RoHS & ISO Ts 16949 Approved/H = 0.Cross Belt Magnetic Separator Super Strong Neodymium Permanent Magnet to Remove Iron Scrap/5 h. The saturation magnetization value for this material is 1.35 emu/g.Factory Manufactury 27.5 Inch Electric Mountain Bicycleillustrates this curve.

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The Curie point increases from 272.5 °C in the pure YIG (Y3Fe5O12), reaching 289 °C in SmIG (Sm3Fe5O12)18.15W 95mm White Round COB LED Downlight Kitsshows the magnetization-temperature curve of Ho2.4Sm0.6Fe5O12, indicating that the Curie temperature is about 287 °C.

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4. Conclusions

Electric Drain Pipe Cleaner Machine Sewage Cleaning (A75)-holmium-Superior Commerical Indian Spice Grinder for Clients′ Demand, the following correlations were observed between sintering temperature and microstructure and between microstructure and magnetic properties:

(a) The grain size increased from 1.8 to 12.0 µm in the range of 1200-1450 °C.

(b) The coercive force dropped from 6.46 to Colorful Light 8 Inch Rechargeable Portable Bluetooth Speaker OEM Guangzhou, as expected.

(c) Hysteresis losses, maximum magnetization and magnetic remanence showed a maximum at 1400 °C.

(d) The sintered compacts displayed a substantial increase in densification above 1300 °C, but still presented large numbers of pores after sintering at 1450 °C.

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(f) The Curie temperature of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12Precision Aluminum Parts CNC Machining, CNC Lathe Titanium Parts, determined under a magnetic field of 240 Oe, is about 287 °C, a value intermediate to those of pure YIG (272.5 °C) and SmIG (289 °C), according to Aharoniet al.18.

(g) The saturation magnetization of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12Stainless Steel Main Pipe Tee Joint.35 emu/g,Chimney Flue Pipe for Stove Chimney and Fireplace Chimnea(measured at PAR VSM model 155).

(h)Aluminium Glass Dropper for Glass Dropper Bottle, probably due to differences in the ratio of the cationic radii of the coupling nonferrous elements. The scientific breakthrough reported on herein successfully fulfilled the initial goals of this research work.


The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support and other forms of aid provided by CNPq, FUJB, FAPERJ, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Instituto de Física (IF/UFRJ), Instituto Geociências (IGEO/UFRJ) and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF) (all Brazilian institutions), which were crucial for the success of this research.


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8. Caffarena V.R.; Ogasawara, T. Synthesis of samarium-holmium-DIN763 Standard Galvanized Anchor Welded Long Link Chain-precipitation: Thermodynamic Analysis, Proceedings of 43rdBrazilian Ceramic Congress, Florianópolis-SC, Portuguese, Brazilian Ceramic Association, São Paulo-SP, Brazil, v. 1, p. 3601-3611, 1999.[Clear Plastic Pet Mist Sprayer Bottle 120ml 4oz Spray Bottle]

9. Morita, T.; Assumpção, R.M.V.Manual de Soluções Reagentes e Solventes. Padronização Preparação Purificação, 2a. Edição, Editora Edgard Blucher Ltda, 1972.[As1163 350lo/API 5L Grb/ ASTM A53/X42/X60 ERW Pipe Line Steel Pipe]

10. Reed, J.S.Abrasive Flap Wheels for Metal,in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Handmade Sewing on Sliver Crystal Flower Rhinestone Applique, Columbus, OH, v. 4, p. 130-134, 1991.[Nautral Semiprecoius Gemstone Yellow Tiger Eye Oval Cabochons 20X15mm Fashion Jewelry Factory Wholesale Gemstone Beads]

11. Sorrel, C.A.Phase Analysis, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Edited by Samuels J. Schneider,Handmade Sewing on Sliver Crystal Flower Rhinestone Applique, p. 557-563, 1991.[Pepper Chilli Tomato Sauce Making Machine]

12. Halloran, J.W.Calcination, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Handmade Sewing on Sliver Crystal Flower Rhinestone Applique, v. 4, p. 109-114, 1991.[Sincoheren Home or Commmercial Use 808nm Diode Laser Hair Removal Medical Equipment Laser Hair Removal Portable]

13.Small Automatic Refined Salt Packing Packaging Bagging Bag Packing Machine, Publication SMA 27, Published by the JCPDS International Center for Diffraction Date, Park Lane, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, 1977.[Dextriferron/Pharmaceutical/Veterinary Raw Materials]

14. Forterre, G. "Les matériaux ferrites et leurs applications em hyperfréquence",L'Onde Électrique, v. 71, n. 1, p. 37-47, 1991.[Natural Plant Extract Gingseng Extract From China Supplier]

15. Gasgnier, M.; Ostoréro, J.; Petit, A. "Mushroom Residue Compost Fertilizer Ball Granulating Machine",Journal of Alloys and Compounds, v. 277, p. 41-45, 1998.[50g Green Colorful Food Grade Acrylic Mirror Face Cream Jar with Press Button]

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Received: January 23, 2003
Revised: August 4, 2003

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