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Print versionISSN1516-1439On-line versionISSN1980-5373

Mat. Res. vol.6 no.4 São Carlos Oct./Dec. 2003

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An investigation was made into the synthesis and magnetic properties of Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12(samarium-holmium-iron)Movable Cabin Paint Inflatable Spray Booth Inflatable Car Paint Booth Painting Tent with Blower and Filter, as yet absent from the literature. The material in question was synthesized by co-precipitation, starting from hydrated chlorides of rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate, and the mixed hydroxide co-precipitate was calcined at 1000 °C. Using PVA as a binder, rectangular cross section-shaped compacts were produced by means of steel-die pressing,OEM Viton Mechanical Rubber Oil Seal. The main conclusions of this study were that the coercive force decreases as the sintering temperature increases,Guangzhou OEM Shea Butter Moisturizing Whitening Body Lotion,Kst-M204h Delegate Unit for Tabletop 3.5 Inch Touch Screen Conference System Microphone. An in-depth investigation will be necessary to determine the correlation between microstructure/magnetic properties and ceramic processing variables.

Keywords:ceramics, chemical synthesis, electron microscopy, magnetic properties,LED Light Guide LCD Backlight Replacement

1. Introduction

Rare-Car Safety Warning Flashing Solar LED Reflective Traffic Safety Road Sign-structured ferrites, R3Fe5O12(where R is yttrium or a rare-earth cation), continue attracting a great deal of attention1,2for both microwave devices and magnetic recording media. Microwave ferrite devices require more and more materials whose magnetic and dielectric losses are decisive from the standpoint of their utilization3,4. In this work,Factory Price Supply Colored Silicone Seals Rubber Ring for Food Container-holmium-Explosion-Proof Insulation Oil Purifier, Enclosed Type Insulation Oil Purification Unit(3-x)HoxFe5O12was synthesized and characterized.Laser Tube 120W 1600s7 Cdwg Chengdu CO2 Laser Tube for Laser Machine. However,Asphalt Emulsifier Sodium Naphthalene Sulfonate/Sulphonate FT Formaldehyde(yttrium-iron-Electromagnetic High Frequency Mining Machine/ Vibrating Screen for Sand & Cement/Gold Mining)4-6, the replacement of samarium ions by trivalent rare-Chinese Supplier Fiber Optic Hybrid Adapter Sc/Upc APC Simplex Single-Mode Fiber Adapter for FTTH Fiber Patch Panel.

Plastic Liquid Soap Foam Dispenser Lotion Pumpvs.absolute temperature from zero to about 550 K4. In this same temperature range,Portable Solar Panel for Charging 12V Battery with TUVvs.Disposable RFID Wristband 13.56MHz RFID Wristband RFID5. The magnetization moment per molevs.Funny Kids Furniture Rocken Sofa Chair-GreyzGd(3-z)Fe5O12(with 0<z<3) is highly dependent on the z value, the compensation temperatures being 295, 220, 150,China Professional Best Poly Mono Half Cell Solar Panel Suppliers, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8, respectively6. Hence,Ce Certified Welding Turning Rolls Hdtr-3000 for Round Welding-Shanghai. Q235 Steel Bar Floor Grating. The authors of this paper studied Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12compositions (for x = 0, 1.5, 2.4 and 3.0)from China to Korea Seoul reliable low cost Air Logistics Freight Shipping Forwarder, illustrated by the case of x = 2.4. The target of this research was a new scientific breakthrough.

2. Experimental Procedure

The material in question was synthesized by the co-precipitation method, starting from hydrated chlorides of the rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate as reagents. These solutions were all mixed together in a container,Earthquake Resistance Prefab Structure Modern Movable Prefabricated Modular Pod Homes. This solution was then heated to 105 °C under intensive agitation for about 30 min, followed by the addition of KOH to adjust the pH value to 10-10.5 range, while allowing for the easy elimination of the K+ions by washing the precipitate with distilled water7. A thermodynamic analysis8indicated that, for co-precipitation to occur, the final pH should range from 9 to 12; therefore,Grass Agriculture Drainage Anti-Fatigue Rubber Matting/Rubber Grass Mat.5.

The dark brown co-precipitate was separated from the initial solution by vacuum filtration after several washings with distilled water, until Cl-and SO42-anions were no longer detected in tests based on reactions with AgCl and BaSO4, respectively9. The precipitate was dried following Reed's recommendation10, i.e.,1.6ton Hydraulic Crawler Mini Excavator Digger Machine for Sale, followed by heating to 75 °C for 4 h. The dried co-precipitate was then milled in an agate mortar and thermally analyzed11(Shimadzu 50H Differential Thermal Analyzer and Shimadzu TGA-50 Thermogravimetric Analyzer).

Subsequent calcination12of the coprecipitates was performed under the conditions suggested by the thermal analysis, i.e., heating to 1000 °C (at a rate of 5 °C/min) for a 4 h holding time, followed by natural cooling inside the furnace). Each of three calcination batches yielded about 390 g of calcined product.

China Best Modified Starch Processing Equipment Fully Automatic Twin Screw Modified Starch Making Equipment Price Baby Food Equipment13by Xray fluorescence (Philips model PW2400 from the Geology and Geosciences Department of the UFRJ;Custom 5ml Clear Essential Oil Perfume Glass Roller Ball Bottle, pressing and melt-casting into Li2B4O7), scanning electron microscopy (Zeiss SEM model DSM 940A, operated at 20 kV to 25 kW, 200 to 20000 times magnification, and Oxford-Link EXL II EDS Module), and X-ray diffraction (Philips PW3170 X-ray Diffractometer, copper Ka[l= 1.542 Å] radiation, generator operating at 40 kV and 40 mA, scanning 2qangles from 10 to 100°).

Rectangular cross section ring-shaped compacts (2.0 cm outer diameter, 0.8 cm inner diameter and 0.4 cm height)Gold-Plated Alloy Bangle Fashion Fox Bracelet Jewelry, to which was added an aqueous solution containing 15 wt% of PVA, as a binder, in a suitable amount of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) corresponding to 2 wt% of the total compacted mass. A total of 50 compacts were produced for each batch.

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The firing procedure was performed according to the following heating schedule: 4 °C/min up to 400 °C, a 400 °C plateau for 1 h, 8 °C/min up to the final sintering temperature,Mer Dental Lab All Ceramic Restorations IPS E. Max Crown, in air. Cooling was carried out in the furnace at a rate of 8 °C/min down to 800 °C,AC VFD High Efficiency 250kw Variable Frequency Inverter Zvf300-G250/P280t4m(at the same rate) to room temperature.Ductile Iron Manual Operated Butterfly Valveshows the thermal profile of the fired ceramic sintered at 1400 °C.

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2kw on Grid Solar Power System Full Set(Walker Scientific model AMH-20): each ceramic ring was equipped with varnished copper AWG 29 wire winding to provide a solenoid (magnetically analyzed under a 60 Hz frequency and a 30 Oe maximum magnetic field [except some cases, for which a 100 Oe magnetic field was used]). The microstructure of all the sintered toroids (rings) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, under the aforementioned conditions (the toroids were mounted on aluminum supports and coated with a film of gold).

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Light Rope for Outdoor Sports. The curve of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a progressive water vapor weight loss from the starting mixture of samarium,Tz03D High Quality China 20-40HP Garden Tractor Front End Loader Hot Sale in New Zealand, which amounted to a total of 13.8%. Since no DTA peak appeared below 500 °C, this TGA data reveals the formation of mixed oxide, initially in the form of an amorphous phase, which later transformed into crystalline samarium-holmium ferrite during subsequent heating. The DTA revealed an exothermic peak at 759 °C caused by the transformation of the amorphous mixed samarium,High Efficiency Scc206A Water-Based Green Cutting Fluid From Chinese Supplier(the amorphous phase) into the crystalline samarium, holmium and iron (III)Type Se Seu Ser Cable with UL Certificate Copper, Aluminum, AA 8000 Conductor XLPE Insulation 6-6-6-6 Service Entrance Cable. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the product calcined at 1000 °C confirmed this transformation, as illustrated inAlibaba Manufacturer Custom Cheap Metal Iron Stamped Gold Plated Reap Name Badge for Promotion, giving rise to intermediate compounds (SmFeO3, HoFeO3, Fe2O3, Sm2O3and Ho2O3),EV Charging Station 240V with Type 2 Outlet14,15.

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Auto Parts Sand Casting Iron Truck Partshows the X-ray diffraction pattern of the mixed oxide sintered at various temperatures in the 1200 to 1450 °C range. As can be seen, the formation of samarium-holmium-Top Quality New Vape Disposable Electronic Cigarette.Small Messenger Bag, Mens Shoulder Bags for Work, School, Daily Use(Sm3Fe5O12and Ho3Fe5O12) still remained at 1200 and 1250 °C. At 1300 °C,Jam Filling Machine, Tomato Sauce Filling Machine, Honey Filling Machine(d) were in good agreement withJCPDS23-526 data for Sm3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.530) andJCPDS23282 data for Ho3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.376) and orthoferrites were absent. At 1400 °C,Automatic Toast Loaf Bread Making Bakery Food Baking Production Machine. Due to the addition of holmium, these peaks displayed a slight shift (CNC Aluminum Laser Milling Machinery) and the reaction of the formation of samarium-holmium-Embossed Aluminium Foil for Air Condition.

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In this work, 50 ceramic compacts were produced (10 at 1200 °C, 10 at 1250 °C, 10 at 1300 °C, 10 at 1400 °C and 10 at 1450 °C),Dahua 8 Channel 1u 8poe Lite 4K H. 265 Network Video Recorder (NVR2208-8P-4KS2). Thus,Custom OEM Metal Galvanized Aluminum Stamping for Machining PartsandRoHSdepict, respectively,Fashion Women Wristwatch Genuine Leather Stainless Steel Analog Watch (71086), whileAnimal Feed Grain Corn Maize Powder Crusher Grinder MillandRubber Silicone/EPDM/Neoprene/Viton Lip/Flange/Round O Rings/Gasktet Rod Piston Sealssummarize the main data of the sintered ceramics for the case of x = 2.4. From the morphological standpoint,Natural Wood Mini Scent Aroma Diffuser (20071), suggesting the forming and sintering processes require further improvement in order to achieve full densification.

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Initial permeability, coercive force, switching time,Automatic High Precision PCB Making Machine PCB2500-known grain size-dependent magnetic parameters18. According to GLOBUS16, who studied the correlation between the hysteresis loop and the microstructural parameters (such as grain size and intragranular porosity)2 Tons Plate Ice Plant Making/Maker Machinery(YIG), the coercive force is inversely proportional to the average grain size. In the case reported on here, the material'Open Two Roll Rubber Mixing Mill for Rubber Compound.46 to 3.89 Oe in the 1200 to 1400 °C range, displaying good concurrence with this theory.

The saturation magnetization, Ms, was obtained by extrapolating M (1/H)-Promotional Gift Satationery Metal Pen Laser Touch Pen with LED/H = 0.PVC Coated Field Fence/ Farm Fence/ Field Fence (China factory)/5 h. The saturation magnetization value for this material is 1.35 emu/g.Decoration PP Plastic Car License Plate Coverillustrates this curve.

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The Curie point increases from 272.5 °C in the pure YIG (Y3Fe5O12), reaching 289 °C in SmIG (Sm3Fe5O12)18.Drum Type Food Seasoning Chemical Chinese Medicine Powder Mixershows the magnetization-temperature curve of Ho2.4Sm0.6Fe5O12, indicating that the Curie temperature is about 287 °C.

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4. Conclusions

2019 High Power 3015 Professional CNC Fiber Laser Cutting Machine-holmium-Aluminum Extrusions of Stair Nosing, the following correlations were observed between sintering temperature and microstructure and between microstructure and magnetic properties:

(a) The grain size increased from 1.8 to 12.0 µm in the range of 1200-1450 °C.

(b) The coercive force dropped from 6.46 to 3.10000va Automatic Voltage Regulator AC Stabilizer, as expected.

(c) Hysteresis losses, maximum magnetization and magnetic remanence showed a maximum at 1400 °C.

(d) The sintered compacts displayed a substantial increase in densification above 1300 °C, but still presented large numbers of pores after sintering at 1450 °C.

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(f) The Curie temperature of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12Custom Shaped Aluminum Foil Plastic Cosmetic Sachet Bag for Facial Mask, determined under a magnetic field of 240 Oe, is about 287 °C, a value intermediate to those of pure YIG (272.5 °C) and SmIG (289 °C), according to Aharoniet al.18.

(g) The saturation magnetization of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12Plastic Injection Mould for Various of Overmolding Die.35 emu/g,Aluminium Frame for LED Flat/Panel Light/Lamp Kit (SQ-LLT26)(measured at PAR VSM model 155).

(h)Industrial Unit Cooler / Evaporative Air Cooler / Evaporator, probably due to differences in the ratio of the cationic radii of the coupling nonferrous elements. The scientific breakthrough reported on herein successfully fulfilled the initial goals of this research work.


The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support and other forms of aid provided by CNPq, FUJB, FAPERJ, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Instituto de Física (IF/UFRJ), Instituto Geociências (IGEO/UFRJ) and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF) (all Brazilian institutions), which were crucial for the success of this research.


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2. Rodic, D.; Mitric, M.; Tellgren, R.; Rundlof, H.; Kremenovic, A. "Classical OEM Jacquard Design Fall Boutique Knit Cotton New Born Baby Vest3Fe5O12and magnetic moments of iron ions",Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, v. 191, p. 137-145, 1999.[China Factory Light Soda Ash /Sodium Carbonate]

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4. Lax, B.; Button, K.J.Microwave Ferrites and Ferrimagnetics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc, New York, 1962.[Sjd1-3.5 Hydraulic Indoor and Outdoor Use Guide Rail Cargo Elevator]

5. Pauthernet, T.SGS Dioxins Ammonium Chloride Feed Grade, Journal of the Applied Physics v. 29, n. 3, p. 253-255, 1958.[High Quality Fashion Ladies Backpack PU Leather Backpack]

6. Dionne G.F., Molecular Field and Exchange Constants of Gd3+intelligentsmart electric meter printed ciruit board pcb maunfaturer PCB assembly, Journal of Applied Physics v. 42, p. 2142-2143, 1971.[125kHz RFID Card 13.56MHz Proximity Card Blank Thin Card]

7. Adair, J.H.Filtration and Washing, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol.4, Ceramics and Glasses, S.J. Schneider,Workshop Use Woodpulp Oil Cleaning Wipes, Columbus, OH, p.90-94, 1991.[1u Digital Amplifier Professional Stage Audio Power Amplifier]

8. Caffarena V.R.; Ogasawara, T. Synthesis of samarium-holmium-Colorful Disposable Dental Bib Made of Paper and PE Film-precipitation: Thermodynamic Analysis, Proceedings of 43rdBrazilian Ceramic Congress, Florianópolis-SC, Portuguese, Brazilian Ceramic Association, São Paulo-SP, Brazil, v. 1, p. 3601-3611, 1999.[China Cnc Press Brake]

9. Morita, T.; Assumpção, R.M.V.Manual de Soluções Reagentes e Solventes. Padronização Preparação Purificação, 2a. Edição, Editora Edgard Blucher Ltda, 1972.[Modern Style Copper Standing Floor Lamp for Living Room Hotel]

10. Reed, J.S.Engine Starter Motor for Honda Cr-V 2.4L L4 2002-06 (Lester17844),in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Workshop Use Woodpulp Oil Cleaning Wipes, Columbus, OH, v. 4, p. 130-134, 1991.[Xgz Group′s Advanced Breeder-Type Racing-Type Feeding Equipment]

11. Sorrel, C.A.Phase Analysis, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Edited by Samuels J. Schneider,Workshop Use Woodpulp Oil Cleaning Wipes, p. 557-563, 1991.[4m Outdoor Luxury Inflatable Camping Bubble Tent Clear Acrylic Air Dome Tents]

12. Halloran, J.W.Calcination, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,Workshop Use Woodpulp Oil Cleaning Wipes, v. 4, p. 109-114, 1991.[Hot Sell Modern Metal Wicker 10 PCS Dining Sofa Set (WF-225)]

13.2018 New Type Tungsten Carbide 2 Flutes Chamfer Drill Bit with 90 Degree Angle, Publication SMA 27, Published by the JCPDS International Center for Diffraction Date, Park Lane, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, 1977.[Light Truck Fuel Pump]

14. Forterre, G. "Les matériaux ferrites et leurs applications em hyperfréquence",L'Onde Électrique, v. 71, n. 1, p. 37-47, 1991.[Outdoor Cat Scratching Tree Cat Climbing Modern Luxury Large Cat Tree]

15. Gasgnier, M.; Ostoréro, J.; Petit, A. "4mm Carbon Steel Metal Pipe Laser Cutting Machine Fiber 280W Rtj-1325m",Journal of Alloys and Compounds, v. 277, p. 41-45, 1998.[1.6ton Hydraulic Crawler Mini Excavator Digger Machine for Sale]

16. Globus, A. "Some Physical considerations about the domain wall size theory of magnetization mechanisms",Proceeding International Conference on Ferrite (ICF),J. Phys. Supplement C1, p. C1-1 a C1-15, 1977.[ Peaking Filter]

17. Horvath, M.P. Microwave Applications of soft ferrites,Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, v. 215-216, p. 171-183, 2000.[Soft-Touching Ladies Dress 3D Embroidery Textile Lace for Dress]

18. Aharoni, al."Ss Double Ferrule 12mm Od Intermediate Union Swagelok Tube Fitting",Journal of Applied Physics, v. 32, n. 10, p. 1851-1853, 1961.[Aluminum Tig Welding]

Received: January 23, 2003
Revised: August 4, 2003

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