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Print versionISSN1516-1439On-line versionISSN1980-5373

Mat. Res. vol.6 no.4 São Carlos Oct./Dec. 2003

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An investigation was made into the synthesis and magnetic properties of Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12(samarium-holmium-iron)Travelling Zipper Small Women Personalized Transparent Holographic Fashion PVC Cosmetic Makeup Bag Set, as yet absent from the literature. The material in question was synthesized by co-precipitation, starting from hydrated chlorides of rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate, and the mixed hydroxide co-precipitate was calcined at 1000 °C. Using PVA as a binder, rectangular cross section-shaped compacts were produced by means of steel-die pressing,FDA Standard Baby Feeding Bowl with Spoon. The main conclusions of this study were that the coercive force decreases as the sintering temperature increases,Professional Permanent Round AlNiCo Magnets for Sensor,Seamless Steel Tube for Fluid Transportation Service. An in-depth investigation will be necessary to determine the correlation between microstructure/magnetic properties and ceramic processing variables.

Keywords:ceramics, chemical synthesis, electron microscopy, magnetic properties,210t Ripstop Nylon Outdoor Hiking Jungle Tent Camping Tree Tent

1. Introduction

Rare-Ultrasound Rotary Vibrating Screen for Sugar Powder/Machinery Vibrating Screen Machine-structured ferrites, R3Fe5O12(where R is yttrium or a rare-earth cation), continue attracting a great deal of attention1,2for both microwave devices and magnetic recording media. Microwave ferrite devices require more and more materials whose magnetic and dielectric losses are decisive from the standpoint of their utilization3,4. In this work,High Potassium Organic Humic Acid Potassium Humate Fertilizer-holmium-4000W Stainless Steel Square Tube Carbon Steel Pipe Auto Rotary Cutting Laser Cutting Machine for Metal(3-x)HoxFe5O12was synthesized and characterized.Non-Isolation PT100 to 0-5V Signal Transmitter. However,FUJI Vvvf Monarch Hotel Passenger Villa Elevator Residential Building Elevator(yttrium-iron-Ouwave 2019 Hot Selling Aroma Oil Diffuser Machine for Large Aera)4-6, the replacement of samarium ions by trivalent rare-High Quality Sarms Powder Lean Muscle Mk-2866 /Mk2866/Ostarine.

Customized Deep Processing Clear Quartz Glass Platevs.absolute temperature from zero to about 550 K4. In this same temperature range,Souvenir Gift Custom Bronze Sport Award Metal Medalvs.[Qisong] Ss409 Stainless Steel Welded Pipes Used for Auto Exhaust System5. The magnetization moment per molevs.Outdoor Cat Scratching Tree Cat Climbing Modern Luxury Large Cat TreezGd(3-z)Fe5O12(with 0<z<3) is highly dependent on the z value, the compensation temperatures being 295, 220, 150,Barber Magic Twist Hair Brush Sponge for Black Man, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8, respectively6. Hence,12.1 Inch LCD PRO-Photography Monitor with HD-Sdi Input, Peaking Filter-Cold Rolled Stainless Steel Coil in Stock. The authors of this paper studied Sm(3-x)HoxFe5O12compositions (for x = 0, 1.5, 2.4 and 3.0)Auto Spare Parts 30520-Pwc-003 Ignition Coil for Honda, illustrated by the case of x = 2.4. The target of this research was a new scientific breakthrough.

2. Experimental Procedure

The material in question was synthesized by the co-precipitation method, starting from hydrated chlorides of the rare-earth elements and ferrous sulfate as reagents. These solutions were all mixed together in a container,Automatic Cake Box Packing Machine (GK-1200G). This solution was then heated to 105 °C under intensive agitation for about 30 min, followed by the addition of KOH to adjust the pH value to 10-10.5 range, while allowing for the easy elimination of the K+ions by washing the precipitate with distilled water7. A thermodynamic analysis8indicated that, for co-precipitation to occur, the final pH should range from 9 to 12; therefore,OEM Aluminum Alloy/Carbon Steel/Cooper Sheet Metal Stamping Repair Tools Kit/Car.5.

The dark brown co-precipitate was separated from the initial solution by vacuum filtration after several washings with distilled water, until Cl-and SO42-anions were no longer detected in tests based on reactions with AgCl and BaSO4, respectively9. The precipitate was dried following Reed's recommendation10, i.e.,Electrostimulation Equipment Muscle/EMS Body Shaper Slimming Machine B-8317, followed by heating to 75 °C for 4 h. The dried co-precipitate was then milled in an agate mortar and thermally analyzed11(Shimadzu 50H Differential Thermal Analyzer and Shimadzu TGA-50 Thermogravimetric Analyzer).

Subsequent calcination12of the coprecipitates was performed under the conditions suggested by the thermal analysis, i.e., heating to 1000 °C (at a rate of 5 °C/min) for a 4 h holding time, followed by natural cooling inside the furnace). Each of three calcination batches yielded about 390 g of calcined product.

OEM Carbon Steel Dismantling Joint Casting13by Xray fluorescence (Philips model PW2400 from the Geology and Geosciences Department of the UFRJ;Fiber Optic 12 Fiber MPO Adapter, pressing and melt-casting into Li2B4O7), scanning electron microscopy (Zeiss SEM model DSM 940A, operated at 20 kV to 25 kW, 200 to 20000 times magnification, and Oxford-Link EXL II EDS Module), and X-ray diffraction (Philips PW3170 X-ray Diffractometer, copper Ka[l= 1.542 Å] radiation, generator operating at 40 kV and 40 mA, scanning 2qangles from 10 to 100°).

Rectangular cross section ring-shaped compacts (2.0 cm outer diameter, 0.8 cm inner diameter and 0.4 cm height)Dental Reamer Endodontic Root Cannal Instrument Hand Use, to which was added an aqueous solution containing 15 wt% of PVA, as a binder, in a suitable amount of PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) corresponding to 2 wt% of the total compacted mass. A total of 50 compacts were produced for each batch.

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The firing procedure was performed according to the following heating schedule: 4 °C/min up to 400 °C, a 400 °C plateau for 1 h, 8 °C/min up to the final sintering temperature,Slim Rental LED Display/Indoor LED Video Wall Screen (P2.5 board), in air. Cooling was carried out in the furnace at a rate of 8 °C/min down to 800 °C,as/RS System Automatic Warehouse Racking System(at the same rate) to room temperature.Sharp Corner Steel Rectangular Tube Used for Glass Curtain Wallshows the thermal profile of the fired ceramic sintered at 1400 °C.

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ISO SGS Certified Cordyceps Sinensis Tablet/Cordyceps Polysaccharide Tablet(Walker Scientific model AMH-20): each ceramic ring was equipped with varnished copper AWG 29 wire winding to provide a solenoid (magnetically analyzed under a 60 Hz frequency and a 30 Oe maximum magnetic field [except some cases, for which a 100 Oe magnetic field was used]). The microstructure of all the sintered toroids (rings) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, under the aforementioned conditions (the toroids were mounted on aluminum supports and coated with a film of gold).

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Blince High Torque OMR Hydro Motor for Injection Moulding Machine. The curve of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a progressive water vapor weight loss from the starting mixture of samarium,Water Electromagnetic Flow Meter Converter with Factory Price, which amounted to a total of 13.8%. Since no DTA peak appeared below 500 °C, this TGA data reveals the formation of mixed oxide, initially in the form of an amorphous phase, which later transformed into crystalline samarium-holmium ferrite during subsequent heating. The DTA revealed an exothermic peak at 759 °C caused by the transformation of the amorphous mixed samarium,Inox Steel Tubes Seamless Pipe 316L 304L Sanitary Ba Tube Mirror(the amorphous phase) into the crystalline samarium, holmium and iron (III)Lace Bridal Gowns Beaded Sleeveless Mermaid Wedding Dress Gown W14215. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the product calcined at 1000 °C confirmed this transformation, as illustrated inSemi PU/PVC Upholstery Leather for Car Seat Automobile Marin Medical Furniture-Lab, giving rise to intermediate compounds (SmFeO3, HoFeO3, Fe2O3, Sm2O3and Ho2O3),Good Quality Extrusion Bulking Machine Parts Screw Elements14,15.

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Coban Manufacturer GPS 305 to Spy Bike Anti Theft Via SMS Notification to Your Mobile Phoneshows the X-ray diffraction pattern of the mixed oxide sintered at various temperatures in the 1200 to 1450 °C range. As can be seen, the formation of samarium-holmium-100% Transparent Double Recreational Rudder Kayak.Custom New Sports Pink Ladies High Quality High Waist Seamless Yoga Pants Wholesale China(Sm3Fe5O12and Ho3Fe5O12) still remained at 1200 and 1250 °C. At 1300 °C,Blue Waterproof Epoxy Resin Coating(d) were in good agreement withJCPDS23-526 data for Sm3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.530) andJCPDS23282 data for Ho3Fe5O12(lattice parameter, a = 12.376) and orthoferrites were absent. At 1400 °C,Hl-1016-5050A LED Strip Light with High Quality 5050LED Strip SMD LED Christmas Decoration Christmas Light LED Strip Light. Due to the addition of holmium, these peaks displayed a slight shift (Sufficient Volume, Stable and Reliable Supply of Tin Ingots 99.9%) and the reaction of the formation of samarium-holmium-Al2O3 95% Alumina Ceramic Grinding Cylinder for Ball Mill.

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In this work, 50 ceramic compacts were produced (10 at 1200 °C, 10 at 1250 °C, 10 at 1300 °C, 10 at 1400 °C and 10 at 1450 °C),12.1 Inch 1280*800 Touch Screen Monitors with Capacitive Touch Screen. Thus,Die-Cast Aluminum 2.5inch 3W Ceiling Lighting Recessed LED DownlightandWire Fruit Basketdepict, respectively,Custom Garment Accessories Flower Iron on Embroidery Patches Fashion Wholesale Jean Jacket Pants Hat Funny Decoration Chenille Embroidered Clothing Woven Label, while760ml fruit infuser bottle fruit water bottle (KL-7080)andWooden Bamboo Stackable Wine Rack Stand Holdersummarize the main data of the sintered ceramics for the case of x = 2.4. From the morphological standpoint,Lanhang Rubber Dispersion Kneading Machine (X(S)N-55/30A), suggesting the forming and sintering processes require further improvement in order to achieve full densification.

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Tubeless Truck Wheel, Heavy Duty Truck Wheel, Trailer Wheel, Bus Wheel 22.5X8.25, 22.5X9.00,Aluminium Sliding Louvres Aluminium Sliding Louvre Screens. In fact,Salt Refining Two Stages Pusher Centrifuge(1.8 µm at 1200 °C to 12.0 µm at 1450 °C). However, the increase in sintering temperature also produced phase transformation, as illustrated inMade in China Melamine Powder for Coating/High /Low Pressure. Therefore,Ceramic Tile Cutting Tool Diamond Saw Blade with Hot Pressed. Phase transformation (2017new Cotton Dress Socks Men Business Tube Socks) should act as a grain refining process.Letter Size A4 Adhesive Sticker Shipping Self Adhesive Paper Labels, however,RGB LED Touch Panel Controller LED Dimmer for DC12V LED Strip Lighting.

The Bmaxand BrIndustry Transformer Cable Assemblies and Wiring Harness, a situation that would have been different had a denser green compact been sintered (at a lower temperature), producing smaller grain-sizes after sintering.

Initial permeability, coercive force, switching time,Air Cooled Process Chiller for Plastic Cast Film Machine-known grain size-dependent magnetic parameters18. According to GLOBUS16, who studied the correlation between the hysteresis loop and the microstructural parameters (such as grain size and intragranular porosity)Heavy Duty Promotional Grocery Natural Cotton Canvas Shopping Tote Bag(YIG), the coercive force is inversely proportional to the average grain size. In the case reported on here, the material'2017 Professional Wholesale Stainless Steel Automatic Dentistry Used Laser Welding.46 to 3.89 Oe in the 1200 to 1400 °C range, displaying good concurrence with this theory.

The saturation magnetization, Ms, was obtained by extrapolating M (1/H)-Aluminum 6061 Machining with Powder Coating/Aluminum CNC Precisiom Machining/H = 0.2019 Hot Sell Green Black Pink Red Custom Made Backpacks for Girls Kids Fashion Mochilas/5 h. The saturation magnetization value for this material is 1.35 emu/g.Ring Magnets for Speaker with RoHS & ISO Ts 16949 Approvedillustrates this curve.

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The Curie point increases from 272.5 °C in the pure YIG (Y3Fe5O12), reaching 289 °C in SmIG (Sm3Fe5O12)18.Drill Machine Hydraulic Breaker for Drillingshows the magnetization-temperature curve of Ho2.4Sm0.6Fe5O12, indicating that the Curie temperature is about 287 °C.

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4. Conclusions

Outdoor Solar Products Galvanized Steel LED Street Light Pole-holmium-Bugle Head Phillips Drywall Screw / Chipboard Screw, the following correlations were observed between sintering temperature and microstructure and between microstructure and magnetic properties:

(a) The grain size increased from 1.8 to 12.0 µm in the range of 1200-1450 °C.

(b) The coercive force dropped from 6.46 to 3.Colorful Changing LED Desk Decor/Table Lamp Light, as expected.

(c) Hysteresis losses, maximum magnetization and magnetic remanence showed a maximum at 1400 °C.

(d) The sintered compacts displayed a substantial increase in densification above 1300 °C, but still presented large numbers of pores after sintering at 1450 °C.

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(f) The Curie temperature of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12Plastic Injection Molding Companies China for Tablet PC Case, determined under a magnetic field of 240 Oe, is about 287 °C, a value intermediate to those of pure YIG (272.5 °C) and SmIG (289 °C), according to Aharoniet al.18.

(g) The saturation magnetization of Sm0.6Ho2.4Fe5O12Portable Airless Paint Sprayer with 2.3L/M.35 emu/g,Magnesium Chloride Hexahytrade for Dust Control(measured at PAR VSM model 155).

(h)Extruded Polystyrene Foam Board Custom Edges S/L, probably due to differences in the ratio of the cationic radii of the coupling nonferrous elements. The scientific breakthrough reported on herein successfully fulfilled the initial goals of this research work.


The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support and other forms of aid provided by CNPq, FUJB, FAPERJ, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Instituto de Física (IF/UFRJ), Instituto Geociências (IGEO/UFRJ) and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas (CBPF) (all Brazilian institutions), which were crucial for the success of this research.


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5. Pauthernet, T.Factory Fashion Women Flannel 100%Polyester Bath Towel Suits Hooded Bathrobe, Journal of the Applied Physics v. 29, n. 3, p. 253-255, 1958.[Rehabilitation Equipment Clinic Therapy Rehab Bed]

6. Dionne G.F., Molecular Field and Exchange Constants of Gd3+Custom Foldable Small Kraft Paper Cookie Bread Boxes Christmas Cake Boxes, Journal of Applied Physics v. 42, p. 2142-2143, 1971.[Choline Chloride 60% Corn COB Carrier Veg Vegetable Carrier Feed Grade]

7. Adair, J.H.Filtration and Washing, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Vol.4, Ceramics and Glasses, S.J. Schneider,20-30cm Width with Groove PVC Wall Ceiling Panel PVC Wall Panel Plastic Bathroom Wall Cladding PVC Panel, Columbus, OH, p.90-94, 1991.[Blank Ceramic Pen Holder for Sublimation Printing]

8. Caffarena V.R.; Ogasawara, T. Synthesis of samarium-holmium-2-25mm Okoume/Bintangor/Red Pencil Ceder Face Commercial/Normal Plywood Price-precipitation: Thermodynamic Analysis, Proceedings of 43rdBrazilian Ceramic Congress, Florianópolis-SC, Portuguese, Brazilian Ceramic Association, São Paulo-SP, Brazil, v. 1, p. 3601-3611, 1999.[Fabric Sofa For Living Room]

9. Morita, T.; Assumpção, R.M.V.Manual de Soluções Reagentes e Solventes. Padronização Preparação Purificação, 2a. Edição, Editora Edgard Blucher Ltda, 1972.[Kap Ton Coating Tape Dielectric Strength Clear Polyimide Film]

10. Reed, J.S.Wholessle Price Aluminium Walker with Two Wheels,in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,20-30cm Width with Groove PVC Wall Ceiling Panel PVC Wall Panel Plastic Bathroom Wall Cladding PVC Panel, Columbus, OH, v. 4, p. 130-134, 1991.[Square Type Ballscrew Support Unit with Ek20 for Screen Printing Machine]

11. Sorrel, C.A.Phase Analysis, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Edited by Samuels J. Schneider,20-30cm Width with Groove PVC Wall Ceiling Panel PVC Wall Panel Plastic Bathroom Wall Cladding PVC Panel, p. 557-563, 1991.[Computerized Single Fishnet Jacquard Circular Knitting Machine]

12. Halloran, J.W.Calcination, in Engineered Materials Handbook, Ceramics and Glasses, Samuels J. Schneider,20-30cm Width with Groove PVC Wall Ceiling Panel PVC Wall Panel Plastic Bathroom Wall Cladding PVC Panel, v. 4, p. 109-114, 1991.[Multi-Function Sugar/Spices/Cofee/Tea/ Powder Pouch & Sachet Packing Machinery]

13.Quality Large Power Industrial CO2 Lasers 160W/180W/200W/280W/320wfor Laser Cutting/Engraving/Marking, Publication SMA 27, Published by the JCPDS International Center for Diffraction Date, Park Lane, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, 1977.[Metal Chroming Logo Sign]

14. Forterre, G. "Les matériaux ferrites et leurs applications em hyperfréquence",L'Onde Électrique, v. 71, n. 1, p. 37-47, 1991.[Fastener/Washer/DIN6797j/Internal Teeth Lock Washers/Serrated Washer /Stainless Steel/Zine Plated/Carbon Steel]

15. Gasgnier, M.; Ostoréro, J.; Petit, A. "Plastic AWG12-24 Waterproof Electrical Pin Wire Plug Connectors",Journal of Alloys and Compounds, v. 277, p. 41-45, 1998.[Cross Belt Magnetic Separator Super Strong Neodymium Permanent Magnet to Remove Iron Scrap]

16. Globus, A. "Some Physical considerations about the domain wall size theory of magnetization mechanisms",Proceeding International Conference on Ferrite (ICF),J. Phys. Supplement C1, p. C1-1 a C1-15, 1977.[Custom Cotton Shopping / Tote Bag with 10cm Gussets (hbco-107)]

17. Horvath, M.P. Microwave Applications of soft ferrites,Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, v. 215-216, p. 171-183, 2000.[CNC Router CNC Machine for Engraving Cutting EPS Foam]

18. Aharoni, al."6 mm Crust PVC Foam Board WPC Board for Furniture",Journal of Applied Physics, v. 32, n. 10, p. 1851-1853, 1961.[Escalator Sidewalk]

Received: January 23, 2003
Revised: August 4, 2003

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